On the Benefits of Using Mindfulness in Universities: A Systematic Literature Review of Studies Published during the COVID Era

Mindfulness meditation is practiced in different contexts by different populations. In universities, the integration of contemplative practices such as mindfulness has become common. Besides, the Covid pandemic increased the interest of university populations in meditation. This table reports a systematic review of the literature following the PRISMA Method on the benefits of Mindfulness meditation in Universities during the Covid pandemic between 2020 and 2022, what research methods were implemented, and the countries where mindfulness was researched. Databases such as SCOPUS and Google Scholar were consulted. A total of 320 articles on the subject were retrieved, of which 237 were included for the review. This table lists the 190 reported benefits of mindfulness in university populations the 92 research methods used, and the 44 countries where the research was conducted, we also report the durations of meditation practices in weeks and the psychometric scales implemented in the included studies. Among the main benefits of meditation reported by several scientific publications, the positive effect of Mindfulness to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, improve well-being, among others, stands out. The complete list of benefits of mindfulness in university populations is included in this report.

Authors:

Alejandro Arias, 0000-0002-0025-386, a.arias5@uniandes.edu.co

Mario Linares-Vásquez, 0000-0003-0161-2888, m.linaresv@uniandes.edu.co

Norma Rocío Héndez-Puerto, 0000-0002-5339-4408, n.hendez@uniandes.edu.co

Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá Colombia

Table: On the Benefits of Using Mindfulness in Universities: A Systematic Literature Review of Studies Published during the COVID Era

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Sample groupWeeks /QEMethodMethod for analysisCountry
10NOJournal ArticleA constructivist grounded theory exploration of Mindfulness for Healthcare Professional students2023Braun SE,Mladen S,Crawford M,Edwards S,Kinser PComplementary Therapies in Clinical PracticeBackground and purpose: To better understand the effects of an intervention, Mindfulness for Healthcare Professional (MIHP), and how it may improve healthcare professional student (HCP) functioning, a constructivist grounded theory exploration was conducted. Materials and methods: Ten participants with the lowest or highest changes on quantitative measures of burnout and perceived stress at the end of MIHP were interviewed at a long-term follow-up. A theoretical framework was developed from the resultant themes to describe the mechanisms by which MIHP had effects on work-relevant functioning. Results: Three overarching themes emerged as mechanisms of change both from their presence in those participants reporting an improvement in stress and their missingness from those participants who reported no change: developing a mindfulness practice, integrating practice into daily life, and enhanced awareness. These mechanisms led to optimized work-relevant functioning: 1) emotional competencies, including nonjudgement, emotion regulation, and burnout prevention; and 2) patient-centered care, including improved listening, patience, and efficiency at work. Conclusion: The resultant framework is discussed in the context of previous literature on MIHP and mindfulness theory more broadly. Implications for future disseminations of MIHP encourage the use of group interventions with emphasis on developing at-home practice and informal mindfulness integrated into daily work.Elsevier17443881https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2022.101689;http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2022.10168910.1016/j.ctcp.2022.101689NANANANANANANANANANANANANANAYearNA NA
20NOJournal ArticleThe effects of visualization meditation on the depression, anxiety, stress and achievement motivation levels of nursing students2023Aksu Ç,Ayar DNurse Education TodayBackground
The implementation of distance education has caused difficulties in the education process of nursing students who receive applied education, as in other fields of education. Although visualization meditation is an attempt to relax the person, its effects on the health-promoting and achievement motivation levels of nursing students during the distance education process has not been examined.

Objective
This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine the effects of visualization meditation on the health and well-being and achievement-oriented motivation levels of the students who were in year one of their education and attending the bachelor of nursing online fundamentals of practice course. In this study, the researchers planned to implement visualization meditation among nursing students for the purpose of alleviating emotions experienced by these students due to the distance education process and lack of in-person interaction with students that would affect them negatively and evaluate the effectiveness of the meditation to be practiced.

Design and methods
The sample of the study consisted of 80 nursing students. A personal information form, the Achievement-Oriented Motivation Scale, and the Stress/Anxiety/Depression Scale were administered to the students in the pretest. Afterwards, visualization meditation was practiced for 8 weeks, 20 min in each session, and the students were given posttests.

Results
It was found that visualization meditation significantly increased the achievement-oriented motivation levels of the students and decreased their stress/anxiety/depression levels.

Conclusion
The visualization meditation intervention that was used in this study can be used for relaxation and achievement motivation in nursing students.
Elsevier BV0260-6917http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.NEDT.2022.10561810.1016/J.NEDT.2022.105618Achievement motivationThe Achievement-Oriented Motivation ScaleDepression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANANANANANA80StudentsYearQuasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyTurkey
30NOMiscellaneousDispositional Mindfulness Reduces Burnout and Promotes Flourishing in Medical Students: a Two-Wave Latent Change Score Model2022Zúñiga D,Torres-Sahli M,Rigotti A,Pedrals N,Echeverría G,Padilla O,Lagos A,McColl P,Trucco O,Cisternas M,González C,Bogado J,Moraga AM,Altamirano P,Durán E,Mansilla M,Berríos C,Epstein R,Bitran MMindfulnessObjectives: Many studies document the high prevalence of burnout among medical students. This syndrome may lead to depression, suicidal ideation, and increased academic dropout. However, there is a scarcity of evidence-based interventions to prevent it. The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify factors that may reduce students’ burnout and foster their well-being, and upon which effective interventions can be developed. Methods: A total of 1,117 medical students from eight Chilean universities were asked to complete a set of validated scales in 2015 and 2 years later, in 2017. The measures included distress, burnout, positive mental health, academic engagement, and dispositional mindfulness. Using logistic regressions and a two-wave latent change score model, the predictive power of these variables on burnout and flourishing (an optimal state of mental health) was studied, as well as their covariance across time. Results: In total, 639 (57.2%) students answered the questionnaires in T1 and T2; 54.4% reported burnout in T1 and 56.2% in T2. Levels of dispositional mindfulness (the ability to pay attention to one’s sensations, thoughts, and emotions in everyday life) predicted lower probabilities of burning out at 2 years, whereas having experienced burnout in T1 doubled these odds. Dispositional mindfulness, academic engagement, and flourishing at T1 predicted greater odds of flourishing 2 years later, while depression decreased these odds. Conclusions: Dispositional mindfulness was the most powerful predictive factor of students’ burnout and flourishing. As dispositional mindfulness can be nurtured through practice, incorporating mindfulness training into undergraduate medical programs may help reduce burnout and promote students’ well-being as health professionals.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01774-7;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01774-7/FIGURES/310.1007/S12671-021-01774-7/FIGURES/3AwarenessMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Emotional RegulationEmotional Regulation QuestionnaireStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANATopicCorrelational cross-sectional study NA
40NOMiscellaneousDispositional Mindfulness Reduces Burnout and Promotes Flourishing in Medical Students: a Two-Wave Latent Change Score Model2022Zúñiga D,Torres-Sahli M,Rigotti A,Pedrals N,Echeverría G,Padilla O,Lagos A,McColl P,Trucco O,Cisternas M,González C,Bogado J,Moraga AM,Altamirano P,Durán E,Mansilla M,Berríos C,Epstein R,Bitran MMindfulnessObjectives: Many studies document the high prevalence of burnout among medical students. This syndrome may lead to depression, suicidal ideation, and increased academic dropout. However, there is a scarcity of evidence-based interventions to prevent it. The aim of this longitudinal study was to identify factors that may reduce students’ burnout and foster their well-being, and upon which effective interventions can be developed. Methods: A total of 1,117 medical students from eight Chilean universities were asked to complete a set of validated scales in 2015 and 2 years later, in 2017. The measures included distress, burnout, positive mental health, academic engagement, and dispositional mindfulness. Using logistic regressions and a two-wave latent change score model, the predictive power of these variables on burnout and flourishing (an optimal state of mental health) was studied, as well as their covariance across time. Results: In total, 639 (57.2%) students answered the questionnaires in T1 and T2; 54.4% reported burnout in T1 and 56.2% in T2. Levels of dispositional mindfulness (the ability to pay attention to one’s sensations, thoughts, and emotions in everyday life) predicted lower probabilities of burning out at 2 years, whereas having experienced burnout in T1 doubled these odds. Dispositional mindfulness, academic engagement, and flourishing at T1 predicted greater odds of flourishing 2 years later, while depression decreased these odds. Conclusions: Dispositional mindfulness was the most powerful predictive factor of students’ burnout and flourishing. As dispositional mindfulness can be nurtured through practice, incorporating mindfulness training into undergraduate medical programs may help reduce burnout and promote students’ well-being as health professionals.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01774-710.1007/S12671-021-01774-7NANANANANANANANANANANANANANADuplicatedNA NA
50NOJournal ArticleMindful language learning: The effects of college students’ mindfulness on short-term vocabulary retention2022Zeilhofer L,Sasao YSystemEducators are increasingly implementing holistic approaches into the foreign language classroom, with one popular method being mindfulness. Mindfulness has been associated with better grades and well-being in higher education. However, no study has yet explored the language-specific relationship between mindfulness and second language acquisition (SLA). This study investigated the relationship between the mindfulness level of 269 Japanese undergraduates and their ability to learn new L3 words in German. The study further examined the extent to which different domains of mindfulness were related to the ability to learn new vocabulary, as well as the relationship between mindfulness and the different vocabulary test parts (receptive, productive, grammatical gender). Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed that higher mindfulness was associated with better vocabulary retention. In particular, the mindfulness dimension “Acting with Awareness” was key for all connections. Notably, the L1 and L3 parts showed a different relationship with different mindfulness dimensions: “Non-judging” was crucial for the productive part and “Observing” was decisive for the receptive part. These findings indicate that mindfulness not only improves general academic performance, but also has a direct relationship with SLA. Finally, this suggests that mindfulness training for students may be a novel approach to facilitate vocabulary learning.Elsevier Ltd0346-251Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.SYSTEM.2022.10290910.1016/J.SYSTEM.2022.102909NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
64NOJournal ArticleA mindfulness‐based well‐being group for international students in higher education: A pilot study2022Xiong Y,Prasath PR,Zhang Q,Jeon LJournal of Counseling and DevelopmentWith an increasing number of international students enrolled in U.S. higher education, they were reported to have severe mental health issues, especially during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. It is critical to provide evidence-based mental health services to help them cope with those issues and promote mental health and the overall well-being of international students. In this article, we utilized a randomized controlled trial to pilot-test the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based well-being group for international students (MBWIS) in improving participants’ overall well-being and mental health. The results indicated that the MBWIS not only improves international students’ trait mindfulness but also increases positive mental health as well as decreases their overall psychological distress and perceived discrimination. Related findings and implications for counselors and university personnel, including how to implement MBWIS in mental health facilities, are discussed within the existing literature.John Wiley and Sons Inc1556-6676http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JCAD.1243210.1002/JCAD.12432Depression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Well-beingPERMA-ProfilerPerceived discriminationEveryday Discrimination ScaleTrait mindfulness Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANA38Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Thailand, France, Costa Rica, Canada, Colombia, South Korea, Nicaragua, Bangladesh, Italy, Lebanon, Iran, Honduras, Nepal, and Vietnam.
75NOJournal ArticleAcceptance and effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions within regular university course teaching: Comparison of two different formats with a control group2022Westbrock A,Dohnke BCurrent PsychologyThe present study aimed to develop and comparatively evaluate two formats of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) for implementation within regular university course teaching. The primary outcome was the acceptance of the two formats. The secondary outcome was the effectiveness measured by subjective ratings of the interventions, and changes in mindfulness and stress compared to a passive control group. A total of 91 students were assigned to either one of two intervention groups or the control group. The first intervention group received a MBI as a separate course (mindfulness course; MC); the second group received a brief MBI at the beginning of another course (mindful beginning of course; MBOC). Questionnaires were administered prior to the first MBI session (T1) and a week after the last MBI session (T2). Acceptance was assessed in the intervention groups at T2. Effectiveness measures were subjective ratings at T2 (intervention groups only) as well as mindfulness (FFMQ-D) and perceived stress (PSQ) assessed at T1 and T2 in all three groups. Both formats were highly accepted and rated as beneficial. Though some ratings were higher for the MC than the MBOC. Compared to the control group, mindfulness increased more in the MC group, but so did stress. In contrast, mindfulness and perceived stress remained unaffected in the MBOC group. MBIs implemented within regular university course teaching are a low-threshold approach to reach larger numbers of students. Different delivery modes and intensities are feasible and accepted by the students.Springer1936-4733https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12144-022-03114-x;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-022-03114-X/TABLES/4https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03114-xAwarenessFFMQ-DStress reliefPerceived stress (PSQ)NANANANANANANANA91Students8Controlled trialRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
80NOJournal ArticleA mediating model of mindfulness, sense of purpose in life and mental health among Chinese graduate students2022Wang Y,Tian T,Wang JBMC PsychologyThe purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between mindfulness and mental health of graduate students and the mediating effects of sense of purpose in life on mindfulness and mental health. The participants include 419 graduate students from 6 universities in China, and there are 190 males and 229 females. The Hayes Process is adopted to analyze the effects of the sense of purpose in life on mindfulness and mental health of graduate students. The results reveal that mindfulness can effect the mental health of graduate students positively and significantly. The sense of purpose in life is found to mediate the relationship between mindfulness and mental health. In further moderated mediation analyses, the effect of mindfulness on mental health can be adjusted by family economic condition. The type of degree can adjust the effect of mindfulness on sense of purpose, and academic Interest can adjust the mediating effect of sense of purpose. Finally, this study discusses several empirical and methodological implications of the findings.BioMed Central Ltd2050-7283https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40359-022-00799-4;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S40359-022-00799-4/TABLES/2;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3538768410.1186/S40359-022-00799-4/TABLES/2NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
95NOJournal ArticleRandomized controlled pilot study of feasibility and effectiveness of peer led remote Mindfulness-Based Art Workshops on stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students2022Wang C,Darbari I,Tolaymat M,Quezada S,Allen J,Cross RKPsychology in the SchoolsMedical students report high levels of psychological distress compared to the general population, yet they also underutilize mental health services. Our Mindfulness-Based Art Workshops (MBAW) combine two established, formal interventions: (a) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, an 8-week group series teaching mindfulness practices, shown to reduce self-reported measures of stress, and (b) art therapy, the use of art exercises guided by certified therapists, shown to reduce stress and anxiety in hospitalized patients and students. The goal of our study was to determine if a peer-led, virtual workshop series designed specifically for and by medical students may be a feasible and effective method of adapting these models to improve student well-being. We hypothesized that virtual, medical student led MBAW are effective in reducing measures of stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students and improving well-being scores. In 2020, 24 University of Maryland School of Medicine first- and second-year medical students were randomized to either the MBAW or no-intervention control group. Primary outcomes included (a) short-term change in State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores and (b) difference in the perceived stress scores between intervention and control group immediately after, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after a 6-session intervention. At specific time points, participants completed questionnaires, which included STAI and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox Perceived Stress survey. We compared the percentage of intervention participants who had clinically significant anxiety before and after MBAW for each session using a generalized estimating equations methodology and compared change from baseline scores between intervention and control groups using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures analysis. In the intervention group, post-MBAW STAI scores decreased by 16.2 (p =.0001), 5 (p =.1544), 13.7 (p =.0002), 13.6 (p =.0006), 12.1 (p =.0009), and 11.9 (p =.0011) points after sessions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Intervention group perceived stress scores decreased from baseline by 5.9 (p =.07) and 4.7 (p =.09) points more than the control group immediately after, and 2 weeks after the 6-session intervention. MBAW sessions are effective at significantly reducing short-term anxiety, and a 6-session MBAW workshop intervention shows trends toward decreasing levels of perceived stress lasting 2 weeks following the intervention, although these findings were not statistically significant. Future studies should evaluate a larger population to confirm the positive findings of this pilot study, which we hope will encourage medical schools to consider integrating and supporting such programs as a method of addressing the urgent need to aid student well-being, within logistical, time, and cost constraints of students and administrators.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1520-6807http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/PITS.2280910.1002/PITS.22809Stress reliefState-Trait Anxiety Inventory’s State Anxiety Scale (STAI)Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANA24Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
100NOJournal ArticleRandomized controlled pilot study of feasibility and effectiveness of peer led remote Mindfulness-Based Art Workshops on stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students2022Wang C,Darbari I,Tolaymat M,Quezada S,Allen J,Cross RKPsychology in the SchoolsMedical students report high levels of psychological distress compared to the general population, yet they also underutilize mental health services. Our Mindfulness-Based Art Workshops (MBAW) combine two established, formal interventions: (a) Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, an 8-week group series teaching mindfulness practices, shown to reduce self-reported measures of stress, and (b) art therapy, the use of art exercises guided by certified therapists, shown to reduce stress and anxiety in hospitalized patients and students. The goal of our study was to determine if a peer-led, virtual workshop series designed specifically for and by medical students may be a feasible and effective method of adapting these models to improve student well-being. We hypothesized that virtual, medical student led MBAW are effective in reducing measures of stress, anxiety, and depression in medical students and improving well-being scores. In 2020, 24 University of Maryland School of Medicine first- and second-year medical students were randomized to either the MBAW or no-intervention control group. Primary outcomes included (a) short-term change in State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores and (b) difference in the perceived stress scores between intervention and control group immediately after, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after a 6-session intervention. At specific time points, participants completed questionnaires, which included STAI and National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox Perceived Stress survey. We compared the percentage of intervention participants who had clinically significant anxiety before and after MBAW for each session using a generalized estimating equations methodology and compared change from baseline scores between intervention and control groups using a mixed-effects model for repeated measures analysis. In the intervention group, post-MBAW STAI scores decreased by 16.2 (p =.0001), 5 (p =.1544), 13.7 (p =.0002), 13.6 (p =.0006), 12.1 (p =.0009), and 11.9 (p =.0011) points after sessions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Intervention group perceived stress scores decreased from baseline by 5.9 (p =.07) and 4.7 (p =.09) points more than the control group immediately after, and 2 weeks after the 6-session intervention. MBAW sessions are effective at significantly reducing short-term anxiety, and a 6-session MBAW workshop intervention shows trends toward decreasing levels of perceived stress lasting 2 weeks following the intervention, although these findings were not statistically significant. Future studies should evaluate a larger population to confirm the positive findings of this pilot study, which we hope will encourage medical schools to consider integrating and supporting such programs as a method of addressing the urgent need to aid student well-being, within logistical, time, and cost constraints of students and administrators.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1520-6807http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/PITS.2280910.1002/PITS.22809NANANANANANANANANANANANANANADuplicatedNA NA
116NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-Based Student Training Improves Vascular Variability Associated With Sustained Reductions in Physiological Stress Response2022Voss A,Bogdanski M,Walther M,Langohr B,Albrecht R,Seifert G,Sandbothe MFrontiers in Public HealthIn today's fast-paced society, chronic stress has become an increasing problem, as it can lead to psycho-physiological health problems. University students are also faced with stress due to the demands of many courses and exams. The positive effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on stress management and self-regulation have already been studied. We have developed a new mindfulness intervention tailored for students—the Mindfulness-Based Student Training (MBST). In this study, we present longitudinal results of the MBST evaluation. Biosignal analysis methods, including pulse wave variability (PWV), heart rate variability, and respiratory activity, were used to assess participants' state of autonomic regulation during the 12-week intervention and at follow-up. The progress of the intervention group (IGR, N = 31) up to 3 months after the end of MBST was compared with that of a control group (CON, N = 34). In addition, the long-term effect for IGR up to 1 year after intervention was examined. The analysis showed significant positive changes in PWV exclusively for IGR. This positive effect, particularly on vascular function, persists 1 year after the end of MBST. These results suggest a physiologically reduced stress level in MBST participants and a beneficial preventive health care program for University students.Frontiers Media S.A.2296-2565https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2022.863671/fullhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.863671Improves Vascular Variability Pulse wave variability (PWV)NANANANANANANANANANA65Students12Controlled trialRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Finland
125NOMiscellaneousShort mindfulness-based intervention for psychological and academic outcomes among university students2022Vorontsova-Wenger O,Ghisletta P,Ababkov V,Bondolfi G,Barisnikov KAnxiety, Stress and CopingThis study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a short mindfulness intervention on anxiety, stress and depression symptoms, as well as on inhibition of dominant responses and academic performance among university students. Fifty volunteers (M(age) = 23.8; SD = 5.3) with high levels of depression, anxiety or stress were randomly allocated to a mindfulness practice group or an active control group (listening to stories). Students who underwent the mindfulness practice had decreased levels of anxiety, stress and depression compared to the control group. The mindfulness program also had a beneficial impact on the students’ academic performance. There was no change in the ability to inhibit dominant responses to neutral stimuli (letters); however, we observed a change in responses to neutral faces. Further research perspectives and the clinical implications of the study are discussed.Routledge1477-2205https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/10615806.2021.1931143;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2021.1931143/SUPPL_FILE/GASC_A_1931143_SM2593.PDF;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3433810410.1080/10615806.2021.1931143/SUPPL_FILE/GASC_A_1931143_SM2593.PDFDepressionThe validated French version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2)AnxietyThe validated French“Form Y”version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y)Stress reliefThe validated French version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)NANANANANANA50Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studySwiss
135YESJournal ArticleThe feasibility of a brief, Internet-based mantram repetition program for undergraduate students2022Vannini MB,McLean CL,Bormann JE,Lang AJJournal of American College HealthTo assess the feasibility of a brief, self-guided, Internet-based version of the mantram repetition program (MRP) for undergraduate students, a population with mental health challenges and high rel...Taylor & Francis1940-3208https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2022.2112044;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2022.211204410.1080/07448481.2022.2112044NANANANANANANANANANANANA60Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
140NOMiscellaneousExamining the Cultural Consensus on Beliefs About Mindfulness Among US College-Attending Young Adults2022Van Doren N,Oravecz Z,Soto JA,Roeser RWMindfulnessObjectives: Mindfulness programs are increasingly popular on college campuses in the US, yet little is known about college students’ perceptions and beliefs about mindfulness: its origins, how it is learned, its functions, and practitioners. Using methods from Cultural Consensus Theory (CCT), the present study examined whether a cultural consensus on mindfulness exists among this group and what the substantive content of that consensus might be. Methods: College-attending young adults aged 18–25 (Study 1, N = 275—convenience sample; Study 2, N = 210—national sample) completed questionnaires on beliefs about mindfulness, exposure to mindfulness, and demographics. Data were analyzed using a CCT-derived Bayesian cognitive psychometric model. Hypotheses for Study 2 were pre-registered. Results: Young adults converged on a cultural consensus about mindfulness, and the substantive content was replicated across both studies. Participants consensually agreed that mindfulness is Buddhist in origin; is both spiritual (but not religious) and secular; can be an antidote to suffering and gives one a competitive edge in business; and is practiced more by women, less by Conservatives. They also viewed mindfulness as a practice that people their age can learn, as a universal practice, and as not limited to older, wealthy, or White people. Prior exposure to mindfulness was related to more agreement with this consensus. Conclusions: The beliefs about mindfulness identified suggest an American cultural consensus amongst young adults that views mindfulness as accessible, learnable, able to relieve suffering, more of interest to women and less to Conservatives, and incorporating both secular and spiritual origins and aims.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-022-01956-x;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-022-01956-X/TABLES/210.1007/S12671-022-01956-X/TABLES/2NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
155NOJournal ArticleThe effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mindfulness and stress levels of nursing students during first clinical experience2022Uysal N,Çalışkan BBPerspectives in Psychiatric CarePurpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on stress levels and mindfulness of nursing students. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental and included pretest−posttest control groups. Results: No differences were detected between the pretest scores of the scales of the students of both groups. Students in the intervention group demonstrated increased mindfulness and decreased stress levels (p < 0.05). Practical Implications: MBSR applied in the present study effectively reduced the stress of nursing students and increased their mindfulness.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1744-6163http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/PPC.1310410.1111/PPC.13104Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)AwarnessMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANANANANANA71Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyTurkey
165YESJournal ArticleExploring the effects of a smartphone-based meditation app on stress, mindfulness, well-being, and resilience in pharmacy students2022Truhlar LM,Durand C,Cooper MR,Goldsmith CAAmerican Journal of Health-System PharmacyDISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles, AJHP is posting manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the smartphone-based meditation app Ten Percent Happier on stress, mindfulness, well-being, and resilience in pharmacy students. METHODS: Pharmacy students in a professional year of study were recruited to participate. Students were instructed to meditate using the Ten Percent Happier app for at least 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Students could use the app at their discretion for weeks 5 to 12. Baseline, week 4, and week 12 responses were collected from the following instruments: the Perceived Stress Scale, the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-15, the Flourishing Scale, and the Brief Resilience Scale. RESULTS: Eighty-nine pharmacy students volunteered for the study. Sixty (67%) enrolled by completing the baseline survey. Of these, 28 (47%) completed the week 4 survey and 22 (37%) completed the week 12 survey. Participants experienced a reduction in perceived stress (P = 0.0005) and increases in resilience (P < 0.0001) and well-being (P = 0.0006). Increases in mindfulness were seen in 4 of the 5 subscales of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-15 (P ≤ 0.05). These benefits were noted at week 4 and maintained at week 12. CONCLUSION: Pharmacy students who practiced mindful meditation through the Ten Percent Happier app for an average of 5 days a week for 4 weeks experienced reduced stress and improved mindfulness, well-being, and resilience. Benefits experienced during the intervention were maintained at the 8-week follow-up, despite app usage decreasing to an average of 4 days a week.Oxford Academic1079-2082https://academic-oup-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/ajhp/article/79/23/2159/6693824;http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/AJHP/ZXAC240;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3607043010.1093/AJHP/ZXAC240Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)AwarnessFive-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-15FlourishingThe Flourishing ScaleResilience Brief Resilience ScaleNANANANA89Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
175NOJournal ArticleCommon humanity in the classroom: Increasing self-compassion and coping self-efficacy through a mindfulness-based intervention2022Taylor SB,Kennedy LA,Lee CE,Waller EKJournal of American College HealthObjective To examine the effectiveness of a classroom-based mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) in improving stress, coping, and psychological well-being in college students. Participants: Sixty-one students at a small liberal arts college. Methods: As part of a college course, students in the MBI condition (N = 33) completed mindfulness meditations, reflective journaling, and participated in group discussions over the course of eight weeks. A control group of students (N = 28) received traditional instruction about stress and coping as part of a concurrently taught college course. Perceived stress, mental health, mindfulness, self-compassion, and coping self-efficacy were measured before and after the intervention and instruction. Results: Significant improvements in self-compassion and coping self-efficacy emerged, particularly in the domains of common humanity, isolation, and emotion-focused coping self-efficacy. Conclusions: These findings suggest that incorporation of MBIs into the classroom can be an effective strategy to enhance the well-being of college students.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1728278;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3215052410.1080/07448481.2020.1728278Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Mental healthMental HealthContinuum-Short FormAwarenessMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Self-compassionSelf-Compassion ScaleCopingCoping Self-Efficacy ScaleNANA33Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
180NAJournal ArticleA Pilot Feasibility Study of Reconnecting to Internal Sensations and Experiences (RISE), a Mindfulness-Informed Intervention to Reduce Interoceptive Dysfunction and Suicidal Ideation, among University Students in India2022Smith AR,Kinkel-Ram S,Grunwald W,George TS,Raval VBrain Sciences 2022, Vol. 12, Page 237Although 20% of the world’s suicides occur in India, suicide prevention efforts in India are lagging (Vijayakumar et al., 2021). Identification of risk factors for suicide in India, as well as the development of accessible interventions to treat these risk factors, could help reduce suicide in India. Interoceptive dysfunction—or an inability to recognize internal sensations in the body—has emerged as a robust correlate of suicidality among studies conducted in the United States. Additionally, a mindfulness-informed intervention designed to reduce interoceptive dysfunction, and thereby suicidality, has yielded promising initial effects in pilot testing (Smith et al., 2021). The current studies sought to replicate these findings in an Indian context. Study 1 (n = 276) found that specific aspects of interoceptive dysfunction were related to current, past, and future likelihood of suicidal ideation. Study 2 (n = 40) was a small, uncontrolled pre-post online pilot of the intervention, Reconnecting to Internal Sensations and Experiences (RISE). The intervention was rated as highly acceptable and demonstrated good retention. Additionally, the intervention was associated with improvements in certain aspects of interoceptive dysfunction and reductions in suicidal ideation and eating pathology. These preliminary results suggest further testing of the intervention among Indian samples is warranted.Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute2076-3425http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/BRAINSCI1202023710.3390/BRAINSCI12020237NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
195YESMiscellaneousThe Development, Implementation, and Preliminary Outcomes of a 5-Minute Mindfulness Program to Improve Well-Being and Increase Connection Across a University Campus2022Sigmon CA,Bam D,Moldow E,Beary S,Wakefield K,Boeldt DLJournal of Technology in Behavioral ScienceBackground: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, people worldwide have experienced increased anxiety, depression, and loneliness and decreased well-being. Mindfulness has been shown to enhance well-being across a variety of settings and for a variety of populations. Purpose: We developed and implemented a digital mindfulness program called Mindful Moment across a US university system as an innovative wellness resource to facilitate well-being and sense of connection among faculty, staff, and students. Attendees engaged in 5-minute live guided mindfulness sessions twice per week. This paper outlines our program evaluation over the course of four months. Methods: A total of 236 individuals attended between one to 30 mindful moment sessions. Data were collected on attendance, perception of the program’s impact on attendee well-being and connectedness to the community, and feedback for future program development. Data collection included standardized stress and belongingness measures in addition to qualitative data related to perceived impact and reasons for attending. Results: Students, faculty, and staff who attended Mindful Moment and completed surveys reported that the program was easy to access, noted immediate benefits including decreased stress and improved well-being, and some attendees reported increased feelings of connection with the community. Conclusions: The present paper is exploratory in nature, a first step to assessing feasibility and overall impact. Future research assessing the impact of digital mindfulness programs can be improved by including a comparison group, additional standardized assessment, and a pre-post design, allowing for stronger conclusions to be drawn regarding efficacy and generalizability.Springer2366-5963https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s41347-021-00232-4;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S41347-021-00232-4/FIGURES/210.1007/S41347-021-00232-4/FIGURES/2Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)BelongingnessBelongingness ScaleNANANANANANANANA236Students15Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
204YESJournal ArticleA qualitative exploration of university student perspectives on mindfulness-based stress reduction exercises via smartphone app in Bangladesh2022Sifat MS,Tasnim N,Stoebenau K,Green KMInternational Journal of Qualitative Studies on Healthand Well-beingMental health problems are proliferating, and access to mental health care is difficult due to barriers imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. University stude...Taylor & Francis1748-2631https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17482631.2022.2113015;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2022.2113015;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3598012210.1080/17482631.2022.2113015NANANANANANANANANANANANA12Students1In-depth interviewsQualitative StudyBangladesh
210NAJournal ArticleMitigating Students’ Anxiety: The Role of Resilience and Mindfulness Among Chinese EFL Learners2022Shen YFrontiers in PsychologyTo manage the undesirable effect of anxiety on students, a wide scope of research has been dedicated to determining the triggers of anxiety and pedagogical interferences that can assist students with mitigating anxiety. Mindfulness is a relaxation strategy that has been related to constructive impacts when utilized as a managing technique for stress and anxiety. Originating from the construct of mindfulness, there is a multidimensional conception acknowledged as resilience as one of the notions in the Positive Psychology (PP) literature, which highlights the organizations and individuals’ strengths and self-control to comply with accidental states. Given the eminence of mindfulness and resilience in learning situations, the present study sets forth to examine the role of these constructs in alleviating English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ anxiety. To meet this objective, 502 Chinese EFL learners took part in this research. They were asked to respond to the three questionnaires, namely resilience, mindfulness, and anxiety. To answer the research question of the study, a linear multiple regression was run and the findings demonstrated that mindfulness and resilience together could significantly predict anxiety. Consistent with the findings, some recommendations are presented concerning the implications of the present research.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2022.940443/BIBTEX10.3389/FPSYG.2022.940443/BIBTEXNANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
220NAJournal ArticleImpact of meditation on mental & physical health and thereby on academic performance of students: A study of higher educational institutions of Uttarakhand2022Sharma P,Malhotra RK,Ojha MK,Gupta SJournal of Medical Pharmaceutical and Allied SciencesBackground and Purpose finding out why people choose to engage in mindfulness-based practises can help in the development of effective health promotion outreach efforts. The impact of health attitudes and perceived stress on the intention to practise mindfulness meditation among undergraduate college students in Uttarakhand was studied in this study. Experimental Approach the research is descriptive in nature based upon primary data. A total of 15 aspects have been studied to assess the impact of meditation on mental & emotional state, physical & psychological wellbeing and academic performance of students. For collection of data, convenience sampling technique has been used. Data has been collected via mail survey using questionnaire technique. Descriptive analysis has been conducted to fulfil the objective of the study, where SPSS version 21 was used for data analysis. Key results indicate that meditation has a positive impact on improving mental & emotional state of students, at the same time it leads to better physical and psychological health. As a result of this, the academic performance of students also enhances, where they are able to perform better in their academics. Conclusion and Implications meditation is a beneficial method to reduce stress and boost creativity. It also promotes physical stamina to battle sickness. It also led to improved academic performance of students; their confidence level, concentration level, memory power, focus, study ability and other related aspects were improved following meditation and mindfulness activities.MEDIC SCIENTIFIC2320-7418http://dx.doi.org/10.55522/JMPAS.V11I2.230910.55522/JMPAS.V11I2.2309NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
235NOMiscellaneousThe effects of a mindfulness-based program on higher education students2022Serrão C,Rodrigues AR,Ferreira TFrontiers in EducationBackground: Entering higher education is a process with multiple challenges that requires the mobilization of personal, social and instrumental resources. As a result, students tend to experience grater stress, anxiety, and depression. In this regard, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can serve as a useful tool to help students deal with these demands. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a Mindfulness in Education program in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms among students. Methods: Forty-four students of higher education from four degrees in the fields of Social and Cultural Sciences participated and finished surveys before and after the 12-weeks intervention, measuring stress, depression, anxiety, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Twenty-three students (82.61% female; Mage = 20.35 DPage = 3.24) participated in Mindfulness in Education. These participants were paired with 21 students (90.48% female; Mage = 18.67, DPage = 0.73), which constituted the control condition. Results: The results showed a session × condition interaction that was statistically significant for depression (p < 0.012) and stress (p < 0.026). In the follow-up exploration, the experimental condition revealed a statistically significant and moderate change in the severity of the symptoms of depression [t(14) = –2.315, p = 0.036, ξ = 0.304, 95% CI (–0.023, –0.499)] but not at the stress level [t(14) = –1.443, p = 0.171, ξ = 0.223, 95% CI (–0.006, –0.364)]. Conclusion: Outcomes were promising, adding to evidence that MBIs can play an important role in helping students manage stress and depression. However, it is still necessary to investigate the mechanisms underlying this type of interventions.Frontiers Media S.A.2504-284Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FEDUC.2022.985204/BIBTEX10.3389/FEDUC.2022.985204/BIBTEXStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)AnxietyThe Generalized Anxiety DisorderAwareness Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Self-compassionSelf-Compassion ScaleDepressionThe Patient Health QuestionnaireNANA44Students12Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyPortugal
244NOJournal ArticleTeaching meditation to college students within an historical and cultural context: A qualitative analysis of undergraduate reflections on contemplative practice2022Sensiper SCurrent Psychology 2022There is a growing interest in contemplative practices in higher education. Researchers have explored the use of meditation to address the increasing requests for counseling and as a resource for improving student mental health. Contemplative practices have also been incorporated into the fundamental learning objectives in some US universities. This study of teaching methods uses first-person narratives from twenty-three 10-week seminars to examine how meditation practice benefited undergraduate students at a large public university in the US. The seminar, “Contemporary American Buddhism: How Meditation Became a Part of the Mainstream,” provided meditation instruction within an historical and cultural context and was taught over a nine-year period. Four hundred undergraduates’ reflective writings were included in this study. During the seminars, students participated in structured in-class meditations, practiced mindfulness exercises, read contemporary texts, viewed recent media and wrote reflective exercises. Students learned how meditation has been adapted for contemporary society, engaged in critical thinking, and reflected on their experiences. An examination of their narrative self-reports indicates outcomes similar to studies using highly structured meditation protocols; an improvement in overall well-being, lessened anxiety, better focus and increased emotional control. This study of teaching methodology also shows that students expressed a desire to continue the practice once the seminar was complete. The results suggest that a structured and systematic investigation of this teaching model would add significantly to the discussion on how to teach contemplative practice to college students.Springer1936-4733https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-022-02811-x;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-022-02811-X10.1007/S12144-022-02811-XWell‑beingNAEmotional regulationNAFocusNAIncreased Awareness, Joy and OpennessNANANANANA400Students10Qualitative StudyQualitative Studyusa
255YESMiscellaneousApp-based mindfulness meditation reduces perceived stress and improves self-regulation in working university students: A randomised controlled trial2022Schulte-Frankenfeld PM,Trautwein FMApplied Psychology: Health and Well-BeingWe investigated whether a brief mindfulness meditation programme delivered via a smartphone app improves perceived stress, self-regulation and life satisfaction in part-time working university students. Mindfulness and cognitive reappraisal were analysed as potential mediators. A total of 64 university students working at least 20 h per week during the semester were randomised to either a mindfulness-based mobile intervention or a wait-list control condition. Participants in the intervention group were asked to complete one training session of 10–15 min per day using the app. Psychological measures were assessed via a self-report questionnaire at baseline and after 8 weeks. The online mindfulness programme was found to significantly decrease perceived stress (ηp2 =.180, a large effect). It also increased self-regulation (ηp2 =.195, a large effect), mindfulness (ηp2 =.174; a large effect) and cognitive reappraisal (ηp2 =.136, a medium effect). Increments in life satisfaction were not significant. Changes in self-regulation were mediated by increased mindfulness. Overall, the mobile application was effective in improving mental well-being and coping abilities in a non-clinical sample, encouraging further development of digital health treatments.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1758-0854http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/APHW.1232810.1111/APHW.12328Mental well-beingNACopingNALife satisfactionAssessment of HappinessEmotional regulation
Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ)Mindfulness LevelFreiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI-14)NANA64Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyGermany
266YESJournal ArticleEffects of a Mindfulness Intervention Comprising an App, Web-Based Workshops, and a Workbook on Perceived Stress Among Nurses and Nursing Trainees: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial2022Schonfeld S,Rathmer I,Michaelsen MM,Hoetger C,Onescheit M,Lange S,Werdecker L,Esch TJMIR Res Protoc 2022;11(8):e37195 https://www. researchprotocols. org/2022/8/e37195Background: Previous research has found digitally supported mindfulness interventions to be effective when used for stress management among workers in high-stress occupations. Findings on digitally supported mindfulness interventions among nurses working in acute inpatient care settings are heterogeneous, lack long-term follow-up, and do not assess adherence and acceptability. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of a digitally supported mindfulness intervention designed to improve health- and work-related outcomes among nurses and nursing trainees working in acute inpatient care settings. Methods: We will conduct a multicenter randomized controlled trial using a wait-list control group design. Randomization will be stratified by hospital and job status (nurse or nursing trainee). Recruitment will take place on the web and offline during the working hours of nurses and nursing trainees. The intervention group will receive a digitally supported mindfulness intervention, which will comprise an app, 2 web-based workshops, and a workbook, whereas the wait-list control group will be scheduled to receive the same intervention 14 weeks later. The 2 web-based workshops will be led by a certified mindfulness-based stress reduction trainer. Nurses will use the app and the workbook independently. Self-report web-based surveys will be conducted on the web at baseline, at 10 weeks after allocation, at 24 weeks after allocation, and at 38 weeks after allocation. Outcomes of interest will include perceived stress (primary outcome), health- and work-related variables, and variables related to adherence and acceptability of the digitally supported mindfulness intervention. We will perform intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Results: Data collection will be completed by the beginning of August 2022. Data analyses will be completed by December 2022. Conclusions: Our study design, including long-term follow-up and the investigation of variables related to adherence and acceptability, will ensure rigorous evaluation of effectiveness and efficacy. Relative to costly in-person intervention efforts, this program may present a cost-effective and potentially highly scalable alternative. Findings regarding effectiveness, efficacy, adherence, and acceptability will inform stakeholders’ decisions regarding the implementation of similar interventions to promote the well-being of nurses and nursing trainees, which may, in turn, alleviate detrimental stress-related outcomes (eg, burnout) because of work-related demands. Trial Registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00025997; https://tinyurl.com/433cas7uJMIR Research Protocols1929-0748https://www.researchprotocols.org/2022/8/e37195;http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/3719510.2196/37195BurnoutNAStress reliefNANANANANANANANANANAStudents14Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
270NAJournal ArticleMuslim Students' Dispositional Mindfulness and Mental Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Core Self-Evaluation2022Saleem M,Rizvi T,Bashir IIslamic Guidance and Counseling JournalThis study analyses the mediating role of Core Self-evaluation (CSE) on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and mental wellbeing. A sample of 184 Muslim students (Mage = 22.08) studying in the different universities completed the self-report measures of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Core Self-evaluations Scale (CSES), and the Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS). The collected responses are subjected to multiple regression and mediation analyses. The results revealed that dispositional mindfulness and core self-evaluations significantly predicted mental well-being. It is found that core self-evaluation fully mediates the effect of dispositional mindfulness on mental well-being. Moreover, it is also observed that measures of dispositional mindfulness, core self-evaluation, and mental well-being are indifferent with respect to students’ gender. Therefore, the study highlights the importance of core self-evaluation and explains a possible process by which depositional mindfulness enhances Muslim students' mental well-being.Institut Agama Islam Ma'arif NU (IAIMNU) Metro Lampung2614-1566https://journal.iaimnumetrolampung.ac.id/index.php/igcj/article/view/2175;http://dx.doi.org/10.25217/IGCJ.V5I1.217510.25217/IGCJ.V5I1.2175NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
280NOJournal ArticleIntegrating Mindfulness Meditation Into the Organizational Behaviour Curriculum2022Rothenberg N,Emanuel TJournal of Higher Education Theory and PracticeThere is a body of evidence demonstrating the positive relationship between mindfulness and a range of Organizational Behaviour (OB) based skills and capabilities. These include perception, emotional regulation, stress management, ethical decision-making, and teamwork. Based on this research, a 10- module introductory mindfulness program was developed for use in Organizational Behaviour classes. This program was successfully introduced to undergraduate, organizational behaviour classes, and was found to ‘set the stage’ for student participation and reduce stress for 72% of participants. This article expands on existing research on targeted mindfulness intervention programs through the development and initial testing of an OB-specific program.North American Business Press2158-3595https://articlegateway.com/index.php/JHETP/article/view/5060;http://dx.doi.org/10.33423/JHETP.V22I2.506010.33423/JHETP.V22I2.5060NANANANANANANANANANANANA180StudentsTopicNOT REPORTED Canada
295NOJournal ArticleMindful Lawyering: a Pilot Study on Mindfulness Training for Law Students2022Rosky CJ,Roberts RL,Hanley AW,Garland ELMindfulnessObjectives: Many US law schools are now offering elective courses in mindfulness training to alleviate disproportionately high levels of anxiety, depression, stress, and disordered alcohol use among law students. To date, empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these courses has been lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the feasibility and impact of a 13‐week mindfulness course, “Mindful Lawyering,” specifically tailored to law students. The primary hypothesis was that mindfulness training would be significantly correlated with improvements in well-being and mindfulness. Methods: The design was a non-randomized, quasi-experimental study involving 64 law students. The mindfulness group was 31 students taking Mindful Lawyering; the comparison group was 33 students taking other law school courses. Outcome measures were the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; the Positive and Negative Affect Scale; the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Results: Results provide promising evidence to support the hypothesis. The mindfulness group showed significantly greater improvement on measures of stress (p <.001, d = 1.15), anxiety (p <.001, d =. 90), depression (p =.012, d =.66), negative affect (p =.002, d =.81), disordered alcohol use (p =.011, d =.67), and mindfulness (p <.001, d = 1.32) from pre to post relative to the comparison group. The course was well accepted and feasible for law students. Conclusions: Findings from the current study suggest that mindfulness training may occasion improvements in the well-being of law students. More research is needed to replicate these findings in larger, randomized samples of law students.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-022-01965-w;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-022-01965-W/FIGURES/110.1007/S12671-022-01965-W/FIGURES/1Readiness for Self‑ImprovementThe Scale of Readiness for Self-ImprovementDepression, Anxiety, and StressShort form of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21, Cronbach’s α=0.93, McDonald’s ω=0.93)Disordered Alcohol UseUse Disorders Identification TestMindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANA64Students13Non-randomized - Quasi-experimentalQuasi-experimental studyUSA
304YESJournal ArticleDigital mental health interventions for anxiety and depressive symptoms in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials2022Riboldi I,Cavaleri D,Calabrese A,Capogrosso CA,Piacenti S,Bartoli F,Crocamo C,Carrà GRevista de Psiquiatria y Salud MentalUniversity students are particularly vulnerable to mental health issues, with anxiety and depression identified as the most common conditions. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing, self-isolation, and difficulties linked to online teaching and learning have increased their burden of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thus, the urgent need to intervene in favour of these vulnerable subjects, together with the difficulties in delivering in-person interventions because of lockdowns and restrictions, has led to prioritize digital mental health strategies. This study aimed at systematically reviewing the existing literature on digital mental health interventions targeting anxiety and depressive symptoms in university students during the COVID-19 emergency. Systematic searches of Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo databases identified eight randomized controlled trials. Regarding anxiety symptoms, digitally delivered cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy, and mind-body practice techniques emerged as valid strategies, while digital positive psychology and mindfulness-based interventions showed mixed results. On the other hand, digitally delivered dialectical behaviour therapy and positive psychology interventions have shown some efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms. Overall, the available literature, albeit of low quality, seems to support the role of digital interventions in promoting the mental health of university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.Ediciones Doyma, S.L.1989-4600http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2022.04.005;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3575549110.1016/j.rpsm.2022.04.005NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANASystematic review of randomized controlled trialsReviewNA
310NAMiscellaneousCross-cultural validity of the five items Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) in Peru and Mexico during the COVID-19 pandemic2022Reyes-Bossio M,Zapparigli EL,Caycho-Rodríguez T,Carbajal-León C,Castaman LA,Pino GL,Sanchez RC,Barbosa-Granados SPsicologia: Reflexão e CríticaAbstract The Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5) is a brief measure of the general tendency to be attentive and aware of experiences in the present moment during daily life. The MAAS-5 has been used in different countries; however, an assessment of its cross-cultural measurement invariance (MI) has not been conducted. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the MAAS-5 in university students from two countries: Peru and Mexico. A total of 1144 university students from Peru (N = 822) and Mexico (N = 322) responded online to the Spanish version of the 5-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS-5). A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Measurement invariance tests the hypothesis that the model behind a set of scores is comparable between groups. The results showed that the unidimensional structure of the MAAS-5 is the same between Peruvian and Mexican university students. Therefore, it is suggested that university students from both countries conceptualize the mindfulness in a similar way. As a result, the MAAS-5 can be used to compare differences between countries. No significant differences were observed in the MAAS-5 score between Peruvian and Mexican university students. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the psychometric properties of the MAAS-5 by presenting MI results in two Latin American countries. Implications of the findings are discussed, which will facilitate a more solid and reliable use of the MAAS-5 in future cross-cultural studies.Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul0102-7972http://www.scielo.br/j/prc/a/hD3JpZkGZFzYhWGvMDFTSky/?lang=en;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S41155-022-00218-Y10.1186/S41155-022-00218-YNANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
325YESJournal ArticleExploring the relationships between resilience, mindfulness, and experiential avoidance after the use of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based mobile app for posttraumatic stress disorder2022Reyes AT,Song H,Bhatta TR,Kearney CAPerspectives in Psychiatric CarePurpose: This study used a mindfulness- and acceptance-based mobile app to examine the relationships between resilience, mindfulness, experiential avoidance, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental pre–posttest, single-group study design was used. A total of 23 college student veterans used the app for 4 weeks. Outcomes of resilience, mindfulness, experiential avoidance, and PTSD were measured at three time-points (baseline, end of Week 2, and end of Week 4). Findings: All outcomes significantly improved at postintervention. Improvements in resilience and PTSD significantly correlated with improvement in mindfulness. Practice Implications: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based mobile apps can be safely used by individuals with PTSD as a complementary approach to enhance resilient coping with PTSD.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1744-6163http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/PPC.12848;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3401819710.1111/PPC.12848ResilienceConnor–Davidson Resilience ScaleMindfulness LevelThe Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Experiential avoidanceAcceptance and Action QuestionnaireIINANANANANANA23Students4Quasi-experimental pre-post testQuasi-experimental studyUSA
336NOJournal ArticleComparison of two different mindfulness interventions among health care students in Finland: a randomised controlled trial2022Repo S,Elovainio M,Pyörälä E,Iriarte-Lüttjohann M,Tuominen T,Härkönen T,Gluschkoff K,Paunio TAdvances in Health Sciences EducationWe investigated the short- and long-term effects of two different evidence-based mindfulness training on students’ stress and well-being. A randomised controlled trial with three measurement points (baseline, post-intervention, and 4 months post-intervention) was conducted among undergraduate students of medicine, dentistry, psychology, and logopaedics at the University of Helsinki. The participants were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) face-to-face mindfulness training based on the Mindfulness Skills for Students course (n = 40), (2) a web-based Student Compass program using Mindfulness and Acceptance and Commitment therapy (n = 22), and (3) a control group that received mental health support as usual (n = 40). The primary outcome was psychological distress measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Secondary outcomes included hair cortisol concentrations and a wide range of well-being indicators. Psychological distress increased in all the groups from baseline to post-intervention, but significantly less so in the intervention groups than in the control group. At 4-month follow-up, were found no differences between the primary outcomes of the control and intervention groups, but the participants who continued practising mindfulness at least twice a week were less stressed than the others. Our results suggest that participating in a mindfulness course may mitigate health care students’ psychological distress during the academic year, but only if the participants continue practising mindfulness at least twice a week.Springer Science and Business Media B.V.1573-1677https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s10459-022-10116-8;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S10459-022-10116-8/FIGURES/5;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3550314510.1007/S10459-022-10116-8/FIGURES/5Stress reliefPsychological distress (primary outcome measure CORE-OM)NANANANANANANANANANA112Students16Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Finland
345NOMiscellaneousEffectiveness of Brief Mindfulness-based Intervention among Students with High Neuroticism based on Peripheral Physiological Data: A Preliminary Study2022Rashidi NA,Izhar LI,Sebastian P,Elamvazuthi IA,Idris SAIEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Manufacturing Automation (ROMA)Stress is a major problem among university students due to the circumstances from internal as well as external such as relationship problems, low self-confidence, and academic pressure. We administered self-report questionnaires and acquired peripheral physiological signals to observe the effectiveness of a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MI) in improving relaxation and thus reducing stress. It was found that skin conductance (SC) showed significant change with p=0.0016 after MI unlike blood volume pulse (BVP) and respiratory rate (RR), even though both were found to be slightly better than that before MI during the resting states and Stroop Task. SC can thus be a potential indicator for the effectiveness of MI in helping the student subjects to cope with stress better and to improve their relaxation and attention levels.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)NAhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ROMA55875.2022.991569410.1109/ROMA55875.2022.9915694Stress reliefSkin conductance (SC) unlike blood volume pulse (BVP) and respiratory rate (RR)NANANANANANANANANANANAStudents1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyMalaysia
355YESJournal ArticleThe Effect of Mindfulness Programs on Collegiate Test Anxiety2022Priebe NP,Kurtz-Costes BEMindfulnessObjectives: Affecting approximately one-fifth of college students, test anxiety is a source of academic failure that leads to worse exam performance and academic retention. The present study assessed the efficacy of online mindfulness-based interventions at reducing collegiate test anxiety. Methods: Undergraduate college students (N = 71) were randomly assigned to a six-week mindfulness condition (n = 24), a three-week mindfulness condition (n = 21), or a six-week sham mindfulness active control condition (n = 26). Participants in each condition were assigned five weekly meditations and written reflections. Responses to online surveys captured participants’ reported levels of test anxiety and mindfulness pre- and post-intervention. Results: Increases in mindfulness were associated with decreased reports of test anxiety, r(69) = −.48. Across all conditions, self-reported mindfulness increased, and self-reported test anxiety decreased from pre- to post-test, F(1, 68) = 19.5 and 28.9, p’s <.001, η2 =.06 and.05 respectively. Conclusions: Changes in the primary variables did not differ by condition, offering no empirical support for greater efficacy of a six-week as compared to a three-week intervention. The sham mindfulness control group also reported increases in mindfulness and decreases in test anxiety, raising questions about what intervention benefits are specific to mindfulness trainings. These findings suggest that online interventions are effective at reducing test anxiety in college students, though more research will inform how intervention length and content lead to changes in test anxiety and mindfulness.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-022-02002-6;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-022-02002-6/TABLES/210.1007/S12671-022-02002-6/TABLES/2Mindfulness levelFFMQ–SFAnxietyThe Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI; Spielberger, 1980)NANANANANANANANA71Students6Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
365YESJournal ArticleThe Effectiveness of a Mindfulness Induction as a Buffer Against Stress Among University Students With and Without a History of Self-Injury2022Petrovic J,Bastien L,Mettler J,Heath NLPsychological ReportsStressful experiences are abundant in university and students with a history of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) may be hyper-reactive to stress. While brief mindfulness inductions have been proposed as a buffer against acute stress, whether they function differently in students with a history of NSSI remains in question. This study sought to explore the impact of an online mindfulness induction on (a) two facets of state mindfulness (i.e., mind and body) and (b) state stress, following a stress induction task, in university students with versus without a history of NSSI. Participants were Canadian university students with (n = 82; Mage = 21.30 years, SD = 2.92; 87.8% female) and without (n = 82; Mage = 21.71 years, SD = 3.18; 87.8% female) a history of NSSI, matched on gender, age, and faculty, who completed baseline (T1) measures of state stress and state mindfulness. Participants were randomly assigned to complete a mindfulness induction or an active control task. All participants then underwent a stress induction, and again completed measures of state stress and state mindfulness (T2). Results from three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that state stress increased from T1 to T2 for all participants, regardless of group or condition. Among those assigned to the control condition, state mindfulness of the body was lower at T2 for participants with a history of NSSI compared to those without such a history. However, participants with a history of NSSI who completed the mindfulness induction reported greater state mindfulness of the body at T2 than students with a history of NSSI who completed an active control task. Findings highlight the unique response of university students with a history of NSSI to a brief mindfulness induction. Implications are discussed in the context of future research and clinical applications.SAGE Publications Inc.1558-691Xhttps://journals-sagepub-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/10.1177/00332941221089282;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00332941221089282/ASSET/IMAGES/LARGE/10.1177_00332941221089282-FIG2.JPEG10.1177/00332941221089282/ASSET/IMAGES/LARGE/10.1177_00332941221089282-FIG2.JPEGNANANANANANANANANANANANA185Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyCanada
375NOMiscellaneousEmotion Regulation, Stress, and Well-Being in Academic Education: Analyzing the Effect of Mindfulness-Based Intervention2022Peixoto LS,Gondim SM,Pereira CRTrends in PsychologyRecent studies point to an increase in psychological distress among graduate students. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of mindfulness practices on emotion regulation, on the perception of stress, and on the psychological well-being of graduate students. Forty-five (45) graduate students participated in the study, divided into an intervention and a control group. Questionnaires were applied for self-assessment of mindfulness, perceived stress, and psychological well-being, in addition to qualitative interviews in the pre- and post-timeframes of a mindfulness-based intervention. Quantitative data were analyzed using ANOVAs for repeated measures, while the interviews were analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The results indicated increases in the levels of mindfulness and psychological well-being, and a reduction in perceived stress in the intervention group, post-intervention. The interviews indicated the presence of ambivalent emotions in relation to graduate studies and the development of new strategies to cope with the stress in this work context. The main contribution of the study was to present empirical evidence of the effectiveness of mindfulness practices in the graduate-level education context, allowing students to become more capable of dealing with the challenges of an academic career.Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH2358-1883https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s43076-021-00092-0;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S43076-021-00092-0/TABLES/610.1007/S43076-021-00092-0/TABLES/6Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Psychological Well‑BeingPsychological Well-being ScaleNANANANANANANANA125Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyBrazil
385YESJournal ArticleAssessing the Effectiveness and Utility of a Mindfulness-Based Ecological Momentary Intervention in College Students2022Pavlacic JM,Schulenberg SE,Witcraft SM,Buchanan EMJournal of Technology in Behavioral ScienceMental health problems are common in college students and yield poor functional outcomes. Despite these emotional and functional difficulties, only a small percentage of students seek treatment due to barriers such as stigma and lack of resources. College students also prefer Web-based services to in-person services; thus, mobile health interventions may be a favored, viable, and accessible option. Ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) incorporate technology to administer interventions and are widely and effectively applied for heterogeneous psychological problems. Mindfulness-based interventions ameliorate psychological distress and promote psychological well-being in college students. Therefore, the current study examined the effectiveness and perceived utility of an EMI incorporating mindfulness-based messages. Participants were 161 undergraduate students (70.19% female; 80.75% white) randomized to either a mindfulness-based EMI or mood monitoring condition (i.e., ecological momentary assessment (EMA)) for 21 days (2812 daily surveys). Contrary to expectations, the EMA condition did not show different outcomes from the EMI condition. Higher engagement in the mindfulness activities was related to higher levels of positive affect, and participants who reported being more aware of emotions (i.e., thoughts, feelings, and behaviors) due to the messages reported lower emotion dysregulation. More emotional awareness due to the mindfulness messages was related to greater usage of messages and a higher likelihood of recommending skills to a friend, and those reporting increased usage of mindfulness messages were more likely to recommend mindfulness skills to a friend. Participants found the mindfulness messages useful and helpful on average. Implications for research and designing of EMIs are discussed.Springer2366-5963http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41347-022-00274-210.1007/s41347-022-00274-2Positive AffectPositive and Negative Affect Scale X (PANAS-X)Emotional RegulationState Difficulties in Emotion Regulation ScaleMindfulness LevelDaily Mindfulness ScaleNANANANANANA161Students2Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
395NOJournal ArticleEvaluation of mindfulness practice in mitigating impostor feelings in dental students2022Pastan CD,Donough AL,Finkelman M,Daniels JCJournal of Dental EducationObjectives: This study examined (i) the prevalence of impostor feelings in first-year dental students, (ii) student perceptions of a mindfulness practice as a tool to cope with impostor feelings, and (iii) students’ ability to identify their level of impostor feelings. Methods: Two hundred three D1 students at a single institution participated in a mandatory Mind-Body Wellness Course that included the presentation “Understanding Imposter Phenomenon” (lecture #1) and a second presentation “Impostor Phenomenon and Mindfulness: Tools for Success” (lecture #2) 6 months later. Before lecture #2, all students predicted the level to which they suffer from imposter feelings and then took the Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale (CIPS) to determine the actual level. After lecture #2, 155 of the students completed a survey on whether the mindfulness practices in the lecture impact their perceptions on coping with impostor feelings. Results: Fifty-two percent of students were classified as frequent or intense impostors by the CIPS. Fifty-one percent predicted their CIPS classification correctly; 43% underestimated their impostor classification. After lecture #2, 86% reported feeling confident they could recognize their impostor feelings, and 93% reported feeling more aware of how impostor feelings influence their thoughts, behaviors, and actions. Eighty-six percent reported feeling the mindfulness exercise was a helpful tool to build habits to cope with impostor feelings; 83% reported feeling confident they could utilize mindfulness practices to mitigate these feelings when they arise. Conclusions: Frequent or intense impostor feelings may be common in first-year dental students. Mindfulness practice has potential to mitigate such impostor feelings.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1930-7837http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JDD.1296510.1002/JDD.12965Imposter PhenomenonImpostor Phenomenon Scale (CIPS)NANANANANANANANANANA155Students24Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
404NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-Based Approaches for Managing Stress, Anxiety and Depression for Health Students in Tertiary Education: a Scoping Review2022Parsons D,Gardner P,Parry S,Smart SMindfulnessObjectives: High rates of depression, anxiety and stress are reported in tertiary health students. Mindfulness-based programs have been included in the training of health students to help them manage depression, anxiety and stress; however, to date, there has been no review of best practice implementation of mindfulness for health students. The aim of this review was to evaluate the outcomes of mindfulness-based practice for health students to inform best practice with this population. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted of three electronic databases (PsychINFO, Medline and Embase) guided by the five-step systematic process for conducting scoping reviews to investigate mindfulness-based intervention programs for students enrolled in a tertiary institution in a health-related course. Results: Twenty-four papers met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed in detail. Findings suggested that mindfulness-based intervention approaches are useful in decreasing depression, anxiety and stress in health students; however, challenges exist in student engagement and retention. Generalization of results was limited by the heterogeneous population, intervention designs and delivery methods, as well as a lack of standardized outcome measures. Conclusion: The inclusion of mindfulness-based programs within tertiary curricula can be an effective approach to assist with managing depression, stress and anxiety in health students. Providing academic credit to students, improving translation of skills to working with future clients, and embedding mindfulness-based programs within the curriculum could improve engagement and retention.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01740-3;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01740-3/TABLES/310.1007/S12671-021-01740-3/TABLES/3Depression, Anxiety, and StressScoping reviewsNANANANANANANANANANANAStudentsNAComprehensive searchReviewNA
415NOJournal ArticleThe Effects of a Brief Mindfulness Intervention on Mindfulness, Stress and Emotional Intelligence in Medical Students2022Othman AEducation in Medicine JournalThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention (b-MBI) on the levels of mindfulness, perceived stress and emotional intelligence (EI). Fifty-nine undergraduate students in medicine course were randomly allocated to either 4 weekly b-MBI sessions (n = 30) or waitlist control (n = 29). All participants completed Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and USM Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i) at pre- and post-intervention. Findings from mixed-factorial ANOVA revealed significant cross-over interactions, but no significant main effects of treatment conditions and time, on mindfulness and perceived stress. Post-hoc analyses indicated intervention group to experience significantly increased levels of mindfulness (p = 0.012) and decreased perceived stress (p = 0.003) at post-intervention, which were unobserved in the controls. Significant main effect of time was observed (p = 0.001) for EI; however, only intervention group reported significant increase in the scores (p = 0.004). The lack of between-group treatment effects could be justified due to relatively low stress and high EI for intervention and control groups at baseline. Nonetheless, within-group findings provided preliminary evidence that b-MBI may be beneficial in improving mindfulness, perceived stress and EI. This intervention may be adapted into the medical curriculum to improve the psychological well-being of medical students.NANAhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/;http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/eimj2022.14.2.110.21315/eimj2022.14.2.1Mindfulness levelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Emotional quotientEmotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i)NANANANANANANANA59Students4Non-blinded randomised controlled studyRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Malaysia
424NOJournal ArticleThe influence of mindfulness-based interventions on the academic performance of students measured by their GPA. A systematic review and meta-analysis2022Ostermann T,Pawelkiwitz M,Cramer HFrontiers in Behavioral NeuroscienceObjective: Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used in health, economic and educational systems. There are numerous studies demonstrating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in the educational sectors (primary, secondary, and tertiary). This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the current state of research on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on the academic performance of students as measured by their grade point average (GPA). Methods: Literature search was conducted in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and Google Scholar through March 2022. The inclusion criteria were: (1) the use of GPA as a measure of students’ academic performance, (2) a sample that was subjected to a mindfulness-based intervention without medical indication, (3) the student status of the subjects. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model with the generic inverse variance method. Results: The search included a total of 759 studies, of which six randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. In these trials, significant group differences for GPA were found with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.16–1.62 yielding a significant overall effect of d = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.15–0.69) and a low magnitude of heterogeneity of I2 = 37%. Discussion: In conclusion, the first results of this emerging research field seem promising. However, the exact mechanisms of action are still unclear.Frontiers Media S.A.1662-5153http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FNBEH.2022.961070/BIBTEX10.3389/FNBEH.2022.961070/BIBTEXAcademic performanceGrade point average (GPA)NANANANANANANANANANANAStudentsNASystematic review and Meta-analysisNA
430NOMiscellaneousCan Mindfulness Improve Organizational Citizenship and Innovative Behaviors Through its Impact on Well-Being Among Academics?2022Nourafkan NJ,Tanova C,Gokmenoglu KKPsychological ReportsMindfulness has received considerable interest due to its positive outcomes for individuals however our understanding of how it may also result in positive outcomes for organizations is not fully understood. Using data collected from university academics (N = 255) in Northern Cyprus, we examine mindfulness as a factor that leads to Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Innovative Work Behaviors (IWB). We expect that eudaimonic well-being serves as the mechanism that links mindfulness to IWB and OCB. Our results show mindfulness improves eudaimonic well-being. Eudaimonic well-being fully mediates the Mindfulness—IWB relationship and partially mediates the Mindfulness—OCB relationship. Since the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of OCB and IWB for universities, our study has important implications for university managers and policymakers.SAGE Publications Inc.1558-691Xhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/00332941211069517;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00332941211069517/ASSET/IMAGES/LARGE/10.1177_00332941211069517-FIG2.JPEG10.1177/00332941211069517/ASSET/IMAGES/LARGE/10.1177_00332941211069517-FIG2.JPEGNANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
445NOJournal ArticleComparison of the effect of two educational methods based on mindfulness and cognitive emotion strategies on psychological well-being and anxiety of eighth-semester midwifery students before the final clinical trial2022Noroozi M,Mohebbi-Dehnavi ZJournal of Education and Health PromotionBACKGROUND: Midwifery services help maintain and improve the health of the community. However, a comprehensive examination reduces students' psychological well-being by creating anxiety. For this purpose, the present study was conducted to determine and compare the effect of two educational methods based on mindfulness and cognitive emotion strategies on psychological well-being and anxiety of eighth-semester midwifery students before the final clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a quasi-experimental three-group study with available sampling method that was performed on 30 eighth-semester midwifery students of the School of Nursing and Midwifery of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2020-2021. Data collection tools were psychological well-being and Test Anxiety Questionnaire. Two intervention groups were trained for eight sessions. The control group did not receive any training program. The data collected by SPSS version 22 software were analyzed by analytical statistical tests of ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc test. RESULTS: The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of components of test anxiety and psychological well-being. Furthermore, emotion regulation training and mindfulness-based training reduced test anxiety and increased students' psychological well-being before the comprehensive test (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: It is recommended that educational programs be considered before the comprehensive examination to promote the mental health and success of these students. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.NANAhttps://www-scopus-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85140396808&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=mindfulness+students&nlo=&nlr=&nls=&sid=8012359509ed715743dd3668c07335cb&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=35&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28mindfulness+students%29&relpos=79&citeCnt=0&searchTerm=;http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp-1427-2110.4103/jehp.jehp-1427-21Psychological well-beingWell-being and Test Anxiety QuestionnaireAnxietyWell-being and Test Anxiety QuestionnaireNANANANANANANANA30Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyIran
455NOJournal ArticleRelationships among Exercise, Mindfulness, Mental Health, and Academic Achievement among Prelicensure Nursing Students2022Niedermeier J,Mumba MN,Barron K,Andrabi M,Martin R,McDiarmid ANurse EducatorBackground: Nursing school is challenging and can be stressful for many students. Nursing students are also susceptible to stress, anxiety, and depression. Exercise and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to improve mental health outcomes in other populations, but it is not known how these strategies influence academic achievement. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among exercise, mindfulness, academic achievement, and mental health among undergraduate nursing students. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design that uses correlational, regression, and mediation analyses. Results: Mindfulness was inversely associated with depression and anxiety and, although not statistically significant, was positively associated with academic achievement. Exercise was not significantly associated with anxiety or academic achievement but was associated with depression. Conclusions: Evidence-based interventions that promote mindfulness among nursing students should be implemented to promote mental health and academic achievement, especially because MBIs are cost-effective and convenient alternatives to other psychotherapies.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins1538-9855https://journals-lww-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/nurseeducatoronline/Fulltext/2022/05000/Relationships_Among_Exercise,_Mindfulness,_Mental.14.aspx;http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000001106;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3455976710.1097/NNE.0000000000001106AnxietyGeneral Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7)DepressionPatient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)NANANANANANANANA121StudentsNACross-sectional StudySingle assessmentUSA
460NAJournal ArticleTrait mindfulness and intrinsic exercise motivation uniquely contribute to exercise self-efficacy2022Neace SM,Hicks AM,DeCaro MS,Salmon PGJournal of American College HealthObjective: Traditional views of exercise motivation emphasize the long-term health benefits of exercise. We investigated whether mindfulness, present-moment awareness, is associated with greater exercise motivation and exercise self-efficacy in college students. Exercise self-efficacy reflects how confident individuals are that they can persist in exercising despite obstacles. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 188) were recruited from the psychology participant pool in Fall 2017. Methods: Participants completed an online survey assessing trait mindfulness, exercise motivation, exercise self-efficacy, and demographic information. Results: Hierarchical regression analyses revealed positive associations between intrinsic and extrinsic exercise motivation and exercise self-efficacy, mindfulness and intrinsic exercise motivation, and mindfulness and exercise self-efficacy. The latter relationship was partially mediated by intrinsic exercise motivation. Extrinsic exercise motivation was not associated with mindfulness. Conclusions: Both mindfulness and intrinsic exercise motivation independently predict exercise self-efficacy, suggesting that mindfulness may uniquely contribute to positive health behaviors in college students.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1748041;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3234319910.1080/07448481.2020.1748041NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
475YESJournal ArticleRemote delivery of a Koru Mindfulness intervention for college students during the COVID-19 pandemic2022Mirabito G,Verhaeghen PJournal of American College HealthTo examine whether a remote, online, group-based mindfulness intervention results in effects during the COVID-19 pandemic.111 college students: 58 in the intervention group, 53 in a waitlist contro...Taylor & Francis1940-3208https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2022.2060708;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2022.206070810.1080/07448481.2022.2060708Sleep qualityPittsburg Sleep Quality Index 41 (PSQI)WorryPenn State Worry Questionnaire (Meyer et al., 1990)RuminationRuminative Responses Scale36 (RRS)MoodPositive And Negative Affect Schedule37 (PANAS)Perceived stressPerceived Stress Scale38 (PSS)Depression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)111Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
485NOJournal ArticleEfficacy of a university offered mindfulness training on perceived stress2022Miller MK,Finkel JP,Marcus BN,Burgin E,Prosek EA,Crace RK,Bravo AJJournal of Counseling & DevelopmentThe present study examined the efficacy of a 4-week mindfulness training program offered on a university campus focused on reducing college students’ (n = 38) perceived stress. Results showed a significant reduction in perceived stress levels throughout the duration of the study. These findings provide preliminary support for the implementation of broad mindfulness-based training in reducing psychological distress among college students. Further controlled research is needed to determine the effects of such trainings in university settings.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1556-6676http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JCAD.1242110.1002/JCAD.12421Perceived stressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANANANA38Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
494NOMiscellaneousFeasibility, effectiveness, and mechanisms of a brief mindfulness‐ and compassion‐based program to reduce stress in university students: A pilot randomized controlled trial2022Martínez‐rubio D,Navarrete J,Montero‐marin JInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthThe mental health of university students is a public health concern, as psychopathology has significantly risen among this population. Mindfulness‐based programs may support their mental health, though more research is needed. We used a two‐armed pilot randomized controlled trial to study the feasibility, preliminary effectiveness, and potential mechanisms of a brief 6‐week instructor‐led mindfulness‐ and compassion‐based program (MCBP for University Life) on perceived stress and psychological distress. Thirty undergraduate psychology students participated (15 in the intervention group, and 15 as wait‐list controls). Those in the intervention arm engaged well with the course and formal at‐home practice, attending at least five sessions and meditating between 4– 6 days per week. Significant improvements in perceived stress, psychological distress, mindfulness skills, decentering, self‐compassion, and experiential avoidance were found at the end of the intervention, while the wait‐list group remained unchanged. There were significant differences between the two groups in those variables at post‐test, favoring the intervention arm with major effects. Reductions in stress were mediated by improvements in mindfulness skills, decentering, and selfcompassion; meanwhile reductions in psychological distress were mediated by improvements in decentering. These results suggest that this intervention might be feasible and effective for university students, but more high‐quality research is needed.MDPI1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH19010154;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3501041410.3390/IJERPH19010154Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Psychiatric strainGeneral Health QuestionnaireMindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANANANA24Students6Pilot Randomized Controlled TrialPilot studySpain
505NOJournal ArticleExploring the impact of a mindfulness meditation class on college student stress levels and quality of life2022Martin MW,Vidic Z,Oxhandler RJournal of American College HealthObjective: This study explored the differences in perceptions of stress levels and quality of life amongst college students enrolled in mindfulness meditation classes and those enrolled in an intro...Taylor & Francis0744-8481https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2022.2133962;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2022.213396210.1080/07448481.2022.2133962Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Perception of LifeThe Perception of Life Questionnaire (PoLQ)NANANANANANANANA236Students13Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
515NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-informed (ACT) and Mindfulness-based Programs (MBSR/MBCT) applied for college students to reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety2022Ma L,Wang Y,Pan L,Cui Z,Schluter PJJournal of Behavioral and Cognitive TherapyThis meta-analysis examines the effects of mindfulness-informed and mindfulness-based interventions including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on depressive and anxiety symptoms among college students. Three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central) were utilized and systematically searched. Effect estimates were reported as standardized mean differences (SMDs) and data were pooled using random-effects models. Twenty-two comparisons derived from 19 studies (2716 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. For studies employing passive control conditions (n = 17), post-intervention effect sizes were significant for depressive (0.47 [95% CI: 0. 32–0.63]) and anxiety symptoms (0.58 [95% CI: 0.34–0.82]). Effect sizes were significant at post-intervention among MBCT (0.76 [95% CI: 0.48–1.03] for depressive symptoms and 1.37 [95% CI: 0.70–2.04] for anxiety symptoms) and MBSR (0.58 [95% CI: 0.31–0.86] for depressive symptoms and 0.49 [95% CI: 0.24–0.73] for anxiety symptoms). The effect size of ACT for depressive symptoms at post-intervention was significant (0.28 [95% CI: 0.09–0.48]), but the post-intervention effect size of ACT for anxiety symptoms was not significant (0.23 [95% CI: −0.01 −0.47]). Our analyses showed no superiority for ACT, MBSR, and MBCT to active control conditions, either when they were combined or considered separately. This meta-analysis provides empirical evidence in support of ACT, MBSR, and MBCT for reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms among college students.Elsevier Masson2589-9791http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.JBCT.2022.05.00210.1016/J.JBCT.2022.05.002Stress reliefNADepressionNANANANANANANANANANANANAMeta-analysisReviewNA
526NOJournal ArticleEffectiveness of a mindful nature walking intervention on sleep quality and mood in university students during Covid-19: A randomised control study2022Ma J,Williams J,Morris PG,Chan PSEXPLOREObjective: The aim of this project was to conduct a randomised control study to examine whether outdoor mindful walking in nature can effectively improve university students’ sleep quality, mood, and mindfulness during the lockdown of Covid-19 pandemic in the U.K. Methods: Participants were measured at T0 (pre-study baseline), T1 (pre-intervention), T2 (post-intervention), and T3 (follow-up). A total of 104 participants (female = 94) who were experiencing sleep difficulties were randomly allocated to either an experimental (i.e., nature) or control (i.e., urban) walking environments. Participants in each walking condition independently undertook a daily 35-minute walk for a week (7 days). Subjective sleep quality, total mood disturbance, mindfulness, and degree of nature, and participants’ perspectives and suggestions about the intervention, were collected. Results: Findings suggest that both groups exhibited significant improvements on participant's trait mindfulness, sleep quality and mood after the intervention. However, mindful walking in nature did not bring additional mental health benefits to participants than those who walked in urban environment. Participants reflected their perspectives about the intervention, which will assist with further intervention development. Conclusions: Findings contribute to the evidence base for the effectiveness of outdoor mindful walking interventions on mental health. Especially these findings add new knowledge of how mindful walking outdoors reduces university students’ mood disturbances and improves their sleep quality and mindfulness level during the pandemic.Elsevier1550-8307http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.EXPLORE.2022.08.00410.1016/J.EXPLORE.2022.08.004MoodThe Short Form of Profile of Mood State (POMS-SF)Mindfulness LevelThe Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS)NANASleep qualityThe Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)Nature ConnectionNature-Relatedness ScaleNANA104Students2Randomised control studyRandomized controlled trial (RCT)United Kingdom
530NAJournal ArticleThe Association between Mindfulness and Resilience among University Students: A Meta-Analysis2022Liu X,Wang Q,Zhou ZSustainability 2022, Vol. 14, Page 10405Based on the concept of education for sustainable development (ESD), both individual mindfulness and resilience play a vital role in developing students’ competences in ESD. Across 20 samples, this meta-analysis investigated the association between mindfulness and resilience among the university student population. The results revealed that (1) the two constructs were significantly correlated, with a moderate effect (r = 0.465); (2) cultural background and national economic development level, as well as the type of resilience measurement scale, did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs; (3) the type of the mindfulness measurement scale was a statistically significant moderator of the relationship between mindfulness and resilience among university students; (4) the mindfulness dimension of observing presented the lowest correlation with the university students’ resilience, while acting with awareness and non-reacting were shown as the two most relevant dimensions for the target group. The findings of the meta-analysis study convey important implications for ESD within the university context.Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute2071-1050http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/SU14161040510.3390/SU141610405NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
544noMiscellaneousMindfulness for academic performance in health professions students: a systematic review2022Lekamge RB,Gasevic D,Karim MN,Ilic DBMJ Evidence-Based MedicineObjectives To systematically review the impact of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on the academic performance of undergraduate medicine, nursing and allied health students. Methods Randomised controlled trials that examined the effects of MBIs in medicine, nursing and allied health students on academic performance were eligible for inclusion. Electronic database searches were conducted across Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus), PsycINFO and ERIC databases. Two authors independently reviewed citations, extracted data and assessed the quality of evidence using the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. A descriptive analysis of included studies and a meta-analysis using a random-effects model of standardised mean difference were performed. Results A total of 267 studies were returned from the search, of which 2 met the inclusion criteria. The overall risk of bias was assessed as unclear risk of bias for one study and high risk of bias for second included study. A meta-analysis of MBIs on student academic performance as measured by marks in written examination indicated no statistical difference between interventions (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD)=0.43, 95% CI −1.77 to 2.62, I2=96%). Discussion Our systematic review highlights a lack of evidence to either support, or refute, the use of mindfulness interventions on the academic performance of undergraduate medical students. We encourage that future randomised controlled trials pay heed to the dosing of mindfulness and include a measurement of mindfulness to enable us to draw a clearer causal relationship. Data are available upon reasonable request.Royal Society of Medicine2515-446Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/BMJEBM-2021-111853;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3576045210.1136/BMJEBM-2021-111853 & Academic performanceNANANANANANANANANANANANANANASystematic reviewReviewNA
555NOJournal ArticleBeyond aloha: Can University of Hawai'i students cultivate Native Hawaiian relational awareness in a mindfulness course?2022Le TN,Jackman TBeyond White Mindfulness: Critical Perspectives on Racism, Well-being and LiberationNative Hawaiian epistemology proposes that all learning and skill acquisitions are embedded within phenomenological rich and embodied experiences in the world and that human attention, awareness and knowledge arise out of interactivity and connectedness with others, land and ancestors (Meyers, 2003). Practicing aloha, in conjunction with mindfulness, may promote an awareness of interdependence that can be extended from the individual world to all members of the community through the introduction of Native Hawaiian worldviews. Despite the burgeoning interest in mindfulness, one of the most common criticisms in the current mindfulness movement is the minimal integration and discussion of ethics and virtues (right thought, speech, and action) in mindfulness practice (e.g., Grossman & Van Dam, 2011; Purser, 2019; Walsh, 2016). Most current mindfulness programs and training do not include an explicit ethics or values component. The Mindfulness and Skillful Living course is a 3-credit undergraduate course that incorporates both the historical foundation of mindfulness (Buddhist perspective) and cultural, place-based relevant ethics and virtues (aloha in Hawai'i) as integral components of the mindfulness practice. This chapter explores the teaching and development of mindfulness among students at the University of Hawai'i, Mānoa.Taylor and Francis Inc.NAhttps://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781003090922-2/beyond-aloha-thao-le-tenaya-jackman;http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781003090922-2/BEYOND-ALOHA-THAO-LE-TENAYA-JACKMAN10.4324/9781003090922-2/BEYOND-ALOHA-THAO-LE-TENAYA-JACKMANCalmNANANANANANANANANANANA45Students16Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
560NAJournal ArticleBenefits of mindfulness in academic settings: trait mindfulness has incremental validity over motivational factors in predicting academic affect, cognition, and behavior2022Kuroda Y,Yamakawa O,Ito MBMC PsychologyBackground: Achievement motivation research has established that motivational factors predict academic affect, cognition, and behavior. Recent studies have shown that trait mindfulness might also predict these academic outcomes. However, it remains unclear whether trait mindfulness has incremental validity over motivational factors. We hypothesized that trait mindfulness would explain unique variance in academic outcomes beyond motivational factors, because mindfulness that is characterized by the being mode of mind (i.e., a present-focused, non-striving, and accepting mind mode) would contribute to academic outcomes through unique and effective self-regulatory processes (i.e., bottom-up self-regulation of learning and present-focused, acceptance-based self-regulation of academic stress), which differ from those (i.e., top-down self-regulation of learning and future-focused, change-oriented self-regulation of academic stress) promoted by motivational factors that are characterized by the doing mode of mind (i.e., a goal-oriented, striving, and change-seeking mind mode). We tested the hypothesis by examining four established motivational factors (competence perception, implicit theory of intelligence, achievement goals, and autonomous and controlled academic reasons) and five outcome variables (test anxiety, enjoyment of learning, study strategy, mind-wandering, and help-seeking avoidance) that had been investigated in both the trait mindfulness and achievement motivation literatures. Methods: One hundred and seventy-five students (104 females) were recruited from undergraduate psychology and cultural studies classes at two universities in Japan. Trait mindfulness was assessed using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. The other study variables were assessed using established measures as well. We conducted hierarchical multiple regression analyses to test the hypothesis. Results: Trait mindfulness predicted four of the five outcome variables (i.e., test anxiety, enjoyment of learning, mind-wandering, and help-seeking avoidance) after controlling for the motivational factors. The acting-with-awareness facet predicted three outcome variables, whereas the other facets predicted one outcome each. Conclusions: This study supports the incremental validity of trait mindfulness relative to motivational factors, suggesting that not only the doing mode of mind but also the being mode is beneficial for academic learning.BioMed Central Ltd2050-7283https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40359-022-00746-3;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S40359-022-00746-3/TABLES/2;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3524115610.1186/S40359-022-00746-3/TABLES/2NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA Japan
575YESMiscellaneousEffectiveness, Acceptability, and Mechanisms of Change of the Internet-Based Intervention StudiCare Mindfulness for College Students: a Randomized Controlled Trial2022Küchler AM,Kählke F,Vollbrecht D,Peip K,Ebert DD,Baumeister HMindfulnessObjectives: College is an exhilarating but stressful time often associated with mental distress. The StudiCare project offers Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMI) for college student mental health promotion. Within this framework, we evaluated the IMI StudiCare Mindfulness, and examined potential moderators and mediators of effectiveness. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 150 college students with low to moderate mindfulness were randomly assigned to StudiCare Mindfulness or a waitlist control group (WL). StudiCare Mindfulness comprises 5 weekly online modules based on Acceptance Commitment Therapy and stress management. Assessments took place before (t0) and 6 weeks after (t1) randomization. Primary outcome was mindfulness. Secondary outcomes were stress, depression, anxiety, quality of life, intervention satisfaction, and adherence. Sociodemographic variables, pre-intervention symptomatology, personality traits, and attitudes towards IMI were examined as potential moderators. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses (N = 149) showed a large effect of StudiCare Mindfulness on mindfulness (d = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.01–1.73) compared to WL at t1 (β = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.96–1.40). Effects on secondary outcomes were significant in favor of the intervention group except for physical quality of life. Mindfulness was found to mediate intervention effectiveness on depression, anxiety, and stress. Moderation analysis was non-significant except for baseline openness to experience, with lower openness associated with larger intervention effects on mindfulness. Conclusions: This trial suggests that StudiCare Mindfulness may enhance mindfulness and reduce mental health problems. Its potential applicability as low-threshold prevention and treatment option on a population level should be subject to future trials. Trial Registration: German Clinical Studies Trial Register TRN: DRKS00012559.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-022-01949-w;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-022-01949-W/TABLES/410.1007/S12671-022-01949-W/TABLES/4Mindfulness levelThe short scale of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)DepressionDepression screening of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)Depression, anxiety, and stressNANANANANANANA150Students6Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyGermany, Switzerland, and Austria
585NOJournal ArticleThe Effects of Mindfulness and Buddhist Meditation Coaching on Mental Health Outcomes in College Students2022Kim Y,Khil J,Wangmo-Seo,Keum NEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative MedicineCollege students are vulnerable to diverse mental health disorders. We aimed to investigate whether a meditation class would be an effective means to address students' mental health challenges. Among the college students who registered for the meditation course, 256 participants were enrolled. The meditation course was a 15-week program incorporating mindfulness meditation and Ganhwa Seon (a traditional Buddhist meditation). A questionnaire was administered twice, on the first and last class of the course, collecting information on personal characteristics and six mental health indicators. A paired t-test was used to examine whether the meditation course conferred benefit on the mental health indicators, and logistic regression analyses were run to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes. After completing the meditation course, there were significant improvements for the adult ADHD score p<0.01 and ego identity (p = 0.02) but not for the other outcomes. Among college students, meditation practice may have positive effects on the adult ADHD score and ego identity.Hindawi Limited1741-4288http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/817893010.1155/2022/8178930Adult ADHDKorean version of the Conners adult ADHD rating scale-26 itemsEgo identityEgo-identity scale & Self-efficacySelf-efcacy scale & Self-esteemKorean version of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale & Spiritual well-beingFunctionalAssessment of Chronic Illness Terapy—SpirituaNANA256Students15Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyKorea
594YESJournal ArticleMindfulness Intervention Courses in STEM Education: A Qualitative Assessment2022Kim E,Moon CW,Kim S,Ozkan E,Lomas TLecture Notes in Networks and SystemsMindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been applied in many contexts, including educational sectors of K-12 and various graduate schools, such as medical and law schools. Research shows that highly competitive students are likely to benefit from mindfulness practices. However, few STEM-focused colleges have been able to assess its value and apply mindfulness practices. This study presents a case report of an MBI course offered by the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). We devised eight questions in three categories to investigate how each individual experiences the MBI course, how they enjoy the academic course, and the suitability of the MBI curriculum in STEM education. Qualitative assessments of feedback featuring questions and answers were analyzed using grounded theory. The results demonstrate three central phenomena: a) gradual changes and development in students’ emotional intelligence, b) development in physical awareness, and c) enhanced sense of joy during the session. These results imply that even during the COVID-19 pandemic, international students—being isolated in their home countries and taking the course online—would likely still benefit from the intrinsic effect of MBIs. It also implies that MBI courses could be recommended as mandatory classes for all KAIST students, where feasible. Nevertheless, further research is needed to fully explore the impact of such programs, both online and in-person, including the use of self-report scales of common measures of mental health to contribute empirical data to the literature.Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH2367-3389https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-90677-1_16;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90677-1_16/COVER10.1007/978-3-030-90677-1_16/COVEREmotional intelligenceNAPhysical awarenessNAEnhanced sense of joyNANANANANANANANAStudentsNAQualitative assessmentsQualitative StudyKorea
604NOJournal ArticleMapping the mindfulness: An literature Review of mindfulness in educational field2022Kim DJOpen Education StudiesThis study presents an overview of the literature of mindfulness in education, which is based on the definition of mindfulness, and accompanying key terms, and the philosophy and practices it involves. The review includes a survey of Buddhism, Eastern and Western mindfulness traditions. This literature review gathers the thinking of scholars on the importance of mindfulness and its beneficial practices—particularly in Western contexts—including mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and related therapies. The literature review is also a motivator in the use of mindfulness because it reveals its proven role in both helping career professionals and reducing stress for students by reducing the psychological and physical distress inherent in work and personal lives or students’ academic lives.De Gruyter Open Ltd2544-7831https://www-degruyter-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/document/doi/10.1515/edu-2022-0008/html;http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/EDU-2022-0008/XML10.1515/EDU-2022-0008/XMLNANANANANANANANANANANANANAStudentsNALiterature RevewReviewNA
616YESJournal ArticleThe efficacy of online mindfulness-based interventions in a university student sample: Videoconference- or podcast-delivered intervention2022Karing CApplied Psychology: Health and Well-BeingThe increasing mental health issues among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic and the challenges of delivering face-to-face interventions during lockdowns have increased the demand for online interventions. The report presents results from a randomized controlled trial investigating the benefits of online mindfulness interventions delivered by videoconference or podcast during the early phase of the pandemic in Germany. Fifty university students were randomized to a mindfulness intervention conducted by videoconference (n = 25) or to an unguided training provided by podcasts (n = 25). All students participated in a 7-week mindfulness intervention. Outcome measures included mindfulness, depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction preintervention and postintervention. The study showed a larger reduction in depression in the videoconferencing group than in the podcast group across per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. There was a significant increase in mindfulness (PP and ITT samples) and life satisfaction (ITT sample) in both groups. The frequency of home practice was related to positive changes in outcomes but only for the videoconferencing group. The results suggest that mindfulness training delivered via videoconferencing can be a viable option to address depressive symptoms among students. However, both interventions were effective in increasing mindfulness and life satisfaction.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1758-0854http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/APHW.1240810.1111/APHW.12408Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). depressionGerman version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-8AnxietyGerman version of the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7, Spitzer et al., 2006).Life satisfactionGeneral Life Satisfaction Scale (Dalbert, 2003)NANANANA50Students7Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
626NOMiscellaneousEmotion Management for College Students: Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Emotion Management Intervention on Emotional Regulation and Resilience of College Students2022Jia-Yuan Z,Xiang-Zi J,Yi-Nan F,Yu-Xia CJournal of Nervous and Mental DiseaseThe discovery of psychological healing methods that are easy to master and can be developed by the individual as a means of improving students' self-psychological adjustment ability is of great practical value. This study is a randomized control trial intended to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based emotion management interventions and to test their effects on the mood state and resilience of college students. A total of 72 students were recruited and randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Thirty-six students in the intervention group received a modified mindfulness-based emotion management intervention once per week for 4 weeks, with each intervention having a duration of 80 minutes. Participants were assessed by questionnaires to measure mindfulness level, emotion, and resilience before and after intervention. There were significant interaction effects on mindfulness level (F = 97.76, p < 0.00), mood state (F = 353.52, p < 0.00), and resilience (F = 178.99, p < 0.00) scores. A modified 4-week mindfulness-based emotion management intervention can improve the mindfulness level and resilience of college students and is an innovative and feasible strategy for enhancing mental health in college students. © Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.Wolters Kluwer Health1539-736Xhttps://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Fulltext/2022/09000/Emotion_Management_for_College_Students_.13.aspx;http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000001484;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3603732410.1097/NMD.0000000000001484Mindfulness levelNAEmotion ManagementNAResilienceNAWell-beingNANANANANA72Students4Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)China
635YESJournal ArticleComparing the Effectiveness of Virtual and In-Person Delivery of Mindfulness-Based Skills Within Healthcare Curriculums2022Hoover EB,Butaney B,Bernard K,Coplan B,LeLacheur S,Straker H,Carr C,Blesse-Hampton L,Naidu A,LaRue AMedical Science EducatorPurpose: To promote well-being, healthcare education programs have incorporated mindfulness-based skills and principles into existing curriculums. Pandemic-related restrictions have compelled programs to deliver content virtually. Study objectives were to determine (1) whether teaching mindfulness-based skills within physician assistant (PA) programs can promote well-being and (2) whether delivery type (virtual vs. in-person) can impact the effectiveness. Methods: During this 2-year study, a brief mindfulness-based curriculum was delivered to incoming first-year students at six PA programs, while students at two programs served as controls. The curriculum was delivered in-person in year one and virtually in year two. Validated pre- and post-test survey items assessed mindfulness (decentering ability, present moment attention and awareness, and psychological flexibility) and well-being (perceived stress and life satisfaction). Results: As expected, coping abilities and well-being were adversely impacted by educational demands. The mindfulness-based curriculum intervention was effective in increasing mindfulness and life satisfaction, while decreasing perceived stress when delivered in-person. Virtual curricular delivery was effective in decreasing perceived stress but not improving life satisfaction. Over half of the participants receiving the curriculum reported positive changes on mindfulness measures with approximately 14–38% reporting a change of greater than one standard deviation. Changes on mindfulness measures explained 30–38% of the reported changes in perceived stress and 22–26% of the changes in life satisfaction. Therefore, the mindfulness curriculum demonstrated statistically significant improvements in measures of mindfulness and mitigated declines in life satisfaction and perceived stress. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based skills effectively taught in-person or virtually within PA programs successfully promote well-being.Springer2156-8650https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s40670-022-01554-5;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S40670-022-01554-5/TABLES/710.1007/S40670-022-01554-5/TABLES/7CopingThe previously validated decentering subscale of the Expe-riences Questionnaire (EQ-D)Well-beingThe previously validated decentering subscale of the Expe-riences Questionnaire (EQ-D)life satisfactionThe five-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS)Stress relief14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)Mindfulness LevelThe 15-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANA384Students16Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
645NOJournal ArticleMEDITATE TO CREATE: MINDFULNESS AND CREATIVITY IN AN ARTS AND DESIGN LEARNING CONTEXT2022Henriksen D,Heywood W,Gruber NCreativity StudiesGiven the applied nature of creativity in the arts and design, it is important to understand the conditions and practices that support it. Most research suggests that ideal conditions for creativity are often mental and emotional – involving relaxed, yet alert and focused, states of mind. This article explores the connection between mindfulness and creativity in the experiences of students in a college of arts and design, through a mindfulness teaching practice to support creative processes. In a “scholarship of teaching and learning” inquiry, we consider how mindfulness practice may affect arts and design learners’ feelings about their own creativity. Students in a large United States university school of arts and design practiced mindfulness meditation for several months, and submitted a written reflection on their experience. We qualitatively analyze this to consider how mindfulness supports creative practices in arts and design learners’ education. Our findings involve three key themes, which are: “Processing anxiety and negative feelings”, “Focusing the mind”, and “Managing the ‘Voice of Judgment’”. These thematic findings reflect how arts and design students perceive the effects of mindfulness on their creative process. We offer implications for teaching practices related to mindfulness meditation practice aimed to support learners’ perceptions of their creativity.VGTU2345-0487http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/CS.2022.1320610.3846/CS.2022.13206Processing anxiety, stress and emotionsNAFocusing the mind for creativityNAManaging the “Voice of Judgment”NANANANANANANA20Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
650NAJournal ArticleMindfulness practice correlates with reduced exam-induced stress and improved exam performance in preclinical medical students with the “acting with awareness”, “non-judging” and “non-reacting” facets of mindfulness particularly associated with improved exam performance2022Hearn JH,Stocker CJBMC PsychologyBackground: Medical students demonstrate higher levels of psychological distress compared with the general population and other student groups, especially at exam times. Mindfulness interventions show promise in stress reduction for this group, and in the reduction of cortisol, an established clinical marker of the body’s stress response. This study investigated the relationship of mindfulness to exam-induced stress, salivary cortisol and exam performance in undergraduate medical students. Methods: A controlled pre-post analysis design with within-groups comparisons. 67 medical students completed the five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ) and provided saliva samples, from which cortisol was extracted, during group work (control/baseline) and immediately prior to end of year 2 examinations (experimental). Academic performance data was extracted for comparison with measures. Results: Exam-induced salivary cortisol concentration showed a significant negative relation with exam performance. Total FFMQ score showed a significant positive relation with exam performance and a significant negative relation with exam-induced salivary cortisol. The specific mindfulness facets of acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reacting also showed a positive correlation with exam performance. Conclusions: This study suggests that there exists an important relationship between mindfulness and the physiological biomarker of stress, cortisol, and this manifests into improved assessment outcomes potentially through healthier, more adaptive coping and stress management strategies. In particular, this study identifies the acting with awareness, non-judging and non-reacting facets of mindfulness to be significantly associated with exam performance suggesting that these may be important facets for clinical educators to target when helping students with mindfulness practice.BioMed Central Ltd2050-7283https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40359-022-00754-3;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S40359-022-00754-3/TABLES/2;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3519711110.1186/S40359-022-00754-3/TABLES/2NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
664NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-based interventions reducing and preventing stress and burnout in medical students: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022Hathaisaard C,Wannarit K,Pattanaseri KAsian Journal of PsychiatryObjective: Stress and burnout are serious problems that impair the well-being and academic performance of medical students. Published systematic reviews and meta-analyses on interventions to reduce the stress experienced by medical students did not conclude which interventions are the most effective due to the heterogeneity of the studies. To enhance the hierarchy of evidence, our study selected only randomized controlled studies. The aims were to obtain more reliable outcomes and to precisely summarize the specific interventions which effectively reduce the stress levels and burnout of medical students. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines. Medical databases (Embase, Ovid, and CINAHL) were searched for relevant randomized controlled studies published up to December 2019. Two treatment timepoints (postintervention, and the 6-month follow-up) were chosen. Stress measure outcomes were the main outcomes. A random effects model was used. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: Six high-quality studies were found. They compared the efficacies of mindfulness-based interventions and clerkship as usual (N = 689). The stress measurement scores of each mindfulness-based intervention at postintervention were significantly better than those of the control groups, with medium effect size and low heterogeneity (95% CI 0.07–0.51; p = 0.01; I-squared index = 45%). At the 6-month follow-up, the mindfulness groups had significantly better results than the control groups, with medium effect size and negligible heterogeneity (95% CI 0.06–0.55; p = 0.02; I-squared index = 0%). Discussion: The results indicate that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in reducing subjective stress in medical students at both the short- and long-term intervention timepoints.Elsevier Science B.V.1876-2018http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.AJP.2021.102997;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3499583910.1016/J.AJP.2021.102997subjective stressNANANANANANANANANANANANANANASystematic review and meta-analysisReviewNA
675NOJournal ArticleStudent and Instructor Reflections on Integrating Short Mindfulness-Based Meditation Practices into a First-Year Engineering Design Course2022H N,Starkey,Zurita S,McComb CFirst-Year Engineering ExperiencePurpose: To promote well-being, healthcare education programs have incorporated mindfulness-based skills and principles into existing curriculums. Pandemic-related restrictions have compelled programs to deliver content virtually. Study objectives were to determine (1) whether teaching mindfulness-based skills within physician assistant (PA) programs can promote well-being and (2) whether delivery type (virtual vs. in-person) can impact the effectiveness. Methods: During this 2-year study, a brief mindfulness-based curriculum was delivered to incoming first-year students at six PA programs, while students at two programs served as controls. The curriculum was delivered in-person in year one and virtually in year two. Validated pre- and post-test survey items assessed mindfulness (decentering ability, present moment attention and awareness, and psychological flexibility) and well-being (perceived stress and life satisfaction). Results: As expected, coping abilities and well-being were adversely impacted by educational demands. The mindfulness-based curriculum intervention was effective in increasing mindfulness and life satisfaction, while decreasing perceived stress when delivered in-person. Virtual curricular delivery was effective in decreasing perceived stress but not improving life satisfaction. Over half of the participants receiving the curriculum reported positive changes on mindfulness measures with approximately 14–38% reporting a change of greater than one standard deviation. Changes on mindfulness measures explained 30–38% of the reported changes in perceived stress and 22–26% of the changes in life satisfaction. Therefore, the mindfulness curriculum demonstrated statistically significant improvements in measures of mindfulness and mitigated declines in life satisfaction and perceived stress. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based skills effectively taught in-person or virtually within PA programs successfully promote well-being.Springer2156-8650https://www-scopus-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85141840436&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=mindfulness+students&nlo=&nlr=&nls=&sid=8012359509ed715743dd3668c07335cb&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=35&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28mindfulness+students%29&relpos=156&citeCnt=0&searchTerm=;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S40670-022-01554-5/TABLES/710.1007/S40670-022-01554-5/TABLES/7Stress reliefNASelf-awarenessNAImprovements in learningNANANANANANANA15StudentsNAQuasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
680NAJournal ArticleImprovements in well-being and cardiac metrics of stress following a yogic breathing workshop: Randomized controlled trial with active comparison2022Goldstein MR,Lewin RK,Allen JJJournal of American College HealthObjective Compare two distinct psychosocial stress-management workshops. Participants Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 69 for analysis, completed April 2017). Methods Participants were randomized to one of two workshops (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga, SKY; Wisdom On Wellness, WOW), matched in terms of duration, group size, etc. Outcomes were questionnaires and psychophysiological response to laboratory stress induction at pre, post, and 3-month follow-up. Results SKY and WOW participants demonstrated similar workshop ratings and retention rates. SKY demonstrated greater improvements on a number of self-report measures relative to WOW, including perceived stress, sleep, social connectedness, distress, anxiety, depression, conscientiousness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Both groups improved in terms of heart rate measures of stress reactivity, however, these outcomes were partially related to changes in resting values at post-workshop and follow-up. Conclusions These findings offer insight into unique patterns of change between yogic breathing, acceptance-based approaches to stress management versus cognitively based approaches.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1781867;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3266725410.1080/07448481.2020.1781867NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATOPICNA NA
695YESJournal ArticleFeasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of a New Online Self-Help Intervention for Depression among Korean College Students’ Families2022Gil M,Kim SSInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022, Vol. 19, Page 2142Applying innovative online approaches to interventions for preventing depression is necessary. Since depressive emotions are typically shared within the family, the development of interventions involving family members is critical. This study thus aimed to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of a new online self-help intervention, MindGuide, among Korean college students’ families. We developed MindGuide, which integrates cognitive behavioral therapy with mindfulness and an emotional regulation approach. A one-group pretest–posttest design was used to measure the changes in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Attitude Toward Suicide scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale before and after the intervention. Of the 34 families that began the program, completion rates were 88.2%, 85.3%, and 91.2% for fathers, mothers, and children, respectively. The findings indicated that the MindGuide program is feasible and acceptable for families of Korean college students. The results support the potential effect of MindGuide on reducing depression, improving positive attitudes toward suicide prevention, and enhancing family relationships in participants at risk of depression. However, future research is needed to thoroughly explore and evaluate the efficacy of the MindGuide program.Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH19042142;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3520632710.3390/IJERPH19042142DepressionThe 20-item CES-DSuicide intentionsAttitudes Towards Suicide(ATTS) scaleSatisfaction with lifeSatisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)NANANANANANA34Families12Pretest–posttest design and a mixed methodPretest–post-test designKorea
704YESMiscellaneousReducing Stress and Increasing Mindfulness in Nursing Students: An Online Mindfulness Intervention Study2022Garmaise-Yee JS,LeBlanc RGNursing education perspectivesABSTRACT: This pilot study evaluated the outcomes of stress and mindfulness among a convenience sample ( n = 60) of nursing students. Students participated in an online mindfulness-based intervention and completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Although mean stress scores lowered, there was no statistically significant reduction in stress. There were significant increases in mindfulness scores (posttest, p = .000) that were sustained at four-week follow-up ( p = .012). Larger increases in mindfulness were associated with larger decreases in stress.NLM (Medline)1536-5026https://journals-lww-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/neponline/Fulltext/2022/11000/Reducing_Stress_and_Increasing_Mindfulness_in.9.aspx;http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000887;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3465233210.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000887Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016).  & StressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANA60Students4Pilot studyPilot studyUSA
715YESJournal ArticleEnhancing Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being in College Students during COVID-19 through WeActive and WeMindful Interventions2022Friedman K,Marenus MW,Murray A,Cahuas A,Ottensoser H,Sanowski J,Chen WInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthThis study aimed to examine the immediate and short-term effects of aerobic and resistance training (WeActive) and mindful exercise (WeMindful) virtual interventions in improving physical activity (PA) and resilience among college students. Participants were 55 students who were randomly assigned to either the WeActive group (n = 31) or the WeMindful group (n = 24). Both groups attended two virtual 30 min aerobic and resistance training sessions (WeActive) or mindful exercise sessions (WeMindful) per week for eight weeks. All participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) via Qualtrics one week prior to (pre-test) and after the intervention (post-test) and 6 weeks after the intervention (follow up). There was a significant main effect of time for resilience (F = 3.4.15, p = 0.024), where both the WeActive group and the WeMindful group significantly increased the resilience scores from pre-test to follow up (t = −2.74, p = 0.02; t = −2.54, p = 0.04), respectively. For moderate physical activity (MPA), there was a significant interaction effect of time with group (F = 4.81, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.038), where the WeActive group significantly increased MPA over time from pre-test to follow-up test as compared to the WeMindful group (t = −2.6, p = 0.033). Only the WeActive intervention was effective in increasing MPA. Both interventions were effective in increasing resilience from pre-test to 6 week follow up.MDPI1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH19074144/S1;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3540982710.3390/IJERPH19074144/S1ResilienceThe Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10)NANANANANANANANANANA77Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
724NOJournal ArticleUtilizing a mindfulness application in the nursing classroom2022Flatekval AMReflective PracticeMindfulness is a practice that is advantageous for decreasing anxiety and stress (McVeigh, 2021). It is very beneficial to use with students. Nursing students experience much stress and anxiety due...Routledge1462-3943https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/14623943.2022.2143342;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14623943.2022.214334210.1080/14623943.2022.2143342AnxietyNAAwarnessNANANANANANANANANA105StudentsNACualitativeQualitative StudyUSA
735NOJournal ArticleEffectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention on post-traumatic stress symptoms among emergency nursing students2022ElKayal MM,Metwaly SMMiddle East Current PsychiatryBackground: Clinical training stress may negatively affect nursing students’ academic achievement, clinical performance, learning outcomes, well-being, general health, and quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mindfulness-based intervention on post-traumatic stress symptoms among emergency nursing students. This study was conducted at the technical institute of nursing, Zagazig University. Three tools were used in the current study: the sociodemographic data sheet, the impact of event scale, and the 15-item Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Results: Emergency nursing students had a wide range of PTSS at the pre-intervention period. These symptoms significantly improved after the implementation of a mindfulness-based intervention. Mindfulness level also improved after the intervention. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were positively correlated with the number of training hours and negatively correlated with students’ age, mother’s occupation, and educational level. Conclusions: Mindfulness-based intervention was effective in reducing post-traumatic stress symptoms among emergency nursing students.Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH2090-5416https://mecp.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s43045-022-00208-x;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S43045-022-00208-X/FIGURES/210.1186/S43045-022-00208-X/FIGURES/2Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Reducing post-traumatic stress symptomsThe impact of event scaleNANANANANANANANA250Students12Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyEgypt
740NAJournal ArticleMindfulness, self-compassion, resiliency and wellbeing in higher education: a recipe to increase academic performance2022Egan H,O'Hara M,Cook A,Mantzios MJournal of Further and Higher EducationUniversities are facing a difficult challenge in supporting good mental health whilst striving to enhance academic performance. The present study aimed to specifically investigate the relationship between attitudinal and personality constructs that are associated with wellbeing and to explore their association with student academic outcomes. Two-hundred and six undergraduate students were recruited and were given questionnaires measuring mindfulness, self-compassion, resiliency, procrastination, consideration of future consequences, self-criticism and social comparison. At the end of the academic year, the researchers accessed their academic records and documented their academic performance. Results indicated that there are strong, clear associations between better academic performance and higher resiliency, mindfulness, self-compassion and consideration of future consequences, and negative associations to procrastination. We concluded that there is a clear gain to be had in academic performance through enhancing these elements using appropriate interventions which are user friendly, affordable and can be embedded into existing student learning and support to reinforce adaptive coping and life skills.Routledge1469-9486http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2021.191230610.1080/0309877X.2021.1912306NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
755NOMiscellaneousFirst-Year College Students’ Well-being: 3-Month Follow-up of Mindfulness Intervention and Potential Mechanisms of Change2022Dvořáková K,Kishida M,Elavsky S,Greenberg MMindfulnessObjectives: We examined 3-month effects of a mindfulness-based intervention with first-year college students. First, we evaluated the intervention effects on measures of life satisfaction and distress. Second, we examined the potential mediators of these effects, in particular a change in mindfulness states and the use of mindfulness practice after the intervention was completed. Methods: The study recruited 109 first-year undergraduates at a large, public university living in the residential halls (M age = 18.2 years, SD = 0.4, 66% females). The sample was randomized to an intervention and control group and 3 months after the end of the intervention both groups completed follow-up. Results: We found intervention effects on distress and life satisfaction at the 3-month follow-up, controlling for gender and attendance of therapy before college (distress: Beta = − 0.177, SE = 0.092, p = 0.055, life satisfaction: Beta = 0.186, SE = 0.075, p = 0.014). Furthermore, we found that the growth in self-reported mindfulness mediated the effects of the intervention at the 3-month follow-up on distress (Beta = − 0.452, SE = 0.089, p = 0.000), but not on life satisfaction (Beta = 0.081, SE = 0.096, p = 0.394). The use of mindfulness practices after the intervention (between post-test and follow-up) mediated the intervention effects on both distress and life satisfaction at follow-up (distress: Beta = − 0.231, SE = 0.097, p = 0.018, life satisfaction: Beta = 0.219, SE = 0.074, p = 0.003). Conclusions: These findings support the notion that self-reported mindfulness can be increased and this shift may mediate the longer term outcomes of mindfulness interventions.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-022-01872-0;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-022-01872-0/FIGURES/710.1007/S12671-022-01872-0/FIGURES/7DistressNAdepressionPHQAnxietyGAD Generalized Anxiety Disorder scaleMindfulness LevelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)& Life SatisfactionLife 5-item scale (SWL; (Diener et al. 1985))NANA109Students12Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
765NOJournal ArticleEffects of a mindfulness course on vital signs and five facet mindfulness questionnaire scores of college students2022Dietrich KM,Bidart MGJournal of American College HealthObjective: This study examined the effects of a college mindfulness course on vital-signs and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) scores. Participants: Two independent groups of 20 students...Taylor & Francis1940-3208https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2022.2060709;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2022.206070910.1080/07448481.2022.2060709Respiration rateNAHeart rateNAMindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). well-being Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANA40Students2Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
775YESMiscellaneousOnline Mindfulness Intervention, Mental Health and Attentional Abilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial in University Students During COVID-19 Lockdown2022Devillers-Réolon L,Mascret N,Sleimen-Malkoun RFrontiers in PsychologyThe COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide restrictive measures, raising concerns about mental health in young adults who were not particularly vulnerable to the virus itself. This study investigated the impact of these restrictions on mental and cognitive health of university students, and tested the efficacy of a brief online mindfulness meditation intervention in countering psychological distress and improving attentional abilities. Ninety-six university students forced into remote learning due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions and with no experience in meditation were randomly assigned to either a passive control group (n = 48) or to an experimental group (n = 48) following daily, for 17 days, an online mindfulness intervention (10–20 min per day). Due to drop-out, 38 participants in each group were finally analyzed. Pre- and post-tests assessed participants’ mental health (psychological well-being, depression, anxiety, stress) and attentional abilities. The analysis of baseline data in comparison with normative scores and pre-pandemic statistics confirmed the expected psychological distress, but it did not reveal any attentional deficits in our participants. Pre-post change scores analyses showed a reduction in stress (p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.10), anxiety (p = 0.002, ηp2 = 0.13), and depression (p = 0.025, ηp2 = 0.07), and an improvement in well-being (p = 0.013, ηp2 = 0.12) in the experimental group, but not in the control group. In both groups, no significant effect was found on attentional abilities. Our results confirmed the psychological vulnerability of higher education students in the midst of the remote learning period during the second COVID-19 lockdown in France, while suggesting preservation of attentional functioning. Although the tested mindfulness intervention did not enhance the attentional abilities in already good performing students, it did promote their mental health. This study offers additional evidence on the feasibility and efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in students during psychologically straining periods, like the COVID-19 pandemic.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2022.889807/BIBTEX;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3587441410.3389/FPSYG.2022.889807/BIBTEXDepression, Anxiety, and StressThe French version (Donald, 2012) of the Depression Anxiety Scale 21 (DASS21; Henry and Crawford, 2005)Psychological Well‑BeingThe French version (Trousselard et al., 2016) of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS; Tennant et al., 2007)NANANANANANANANA96Students2Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designFrance
786YESJournal ArticleMindfulness-based online intervention on mental health among undergraduate nursing students during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Beijing, China: A randomized controlled trial2022Dai Z,Jing S,Wang H,Xiao W,Huang Y,Chen X,Fu J,Pan C,Tang Q,Wang H,Su XFrontiers in PsychiatryObjective: To evaluate the effect of mindfulness intervention on improving mental health among undergraduate nursing students during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China. Methods: An online mindfulness intervention course named Mindfulness Living With Challenge (MLWC) was developed by the research team, and a randomized controlled trial using MLWC among Chinese undergraduate nursing students was carried out. A total of 120 undergraduate nursing students were randomized into control (60 students) and intervention groups (60 students) via a WeChat mini program. Self-administered questionnaire surveys were conducted at pre- and post-intervention, measuring depression, anxiety, stress, mindfulness, and perceived social support. After intervention, the acceptance of the online mindfulness course among participants was assessed by employing the theory of technology acceptance model (TAM). Results: Among the enrolled 120 participants, 86.67% (52/60) and 93.33% (56/60) of the intervention and control groups remained completed the trial and the questionnaire surveys. Compared with the control group, the reduction of anxiety and stress symptoms, as well as the improvement of mindfulness level and perceived social support in the MLWC intervention group were statistically significant (P < 0.05), while the change in depression was not statistically significant. The scores of the four dimensions in TAM ranged from (5.88 ± 0.94) to (5.91 ± 0.97). Conclusion: Online mindfulness intervention implemented in this study is effective in improving mental health among undergraduate nursing students, and they were interested in this intervention. Clinical trial registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [ChiCTR2 200058103].Frontiers Media S.A.1664-0640http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYT.2022.94947710.3389/FPSYT.2022.949477& DepressionDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Mindfulness LevelChinese Short Formed Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-SF)Perceived social supportThe Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS)NANANANANANA120Students6Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)China
796YESMiscellaneousFeasibility and the effects of an online mindfulness-based health promotion program on college students' sleep, circadian rhythms, and well-being: Protocol for a randomized trial [CIRCAMIND study]2022da Silva Vallim JR,Mello EC,Fagundes HG,Lima GS,Tsuji HM,Xylaras BD,da Silva Rosa A,Demarzo M,D'Almeida VEuropean Journal of Integrative MedicineIntroduction: College students are exposed to a stressful routine, circadian misalignment, sleep irregularity and restriction, that is harmful to their health. Mindfulness training promotes well-being, reduces stress, and can improve sleep quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the Mindfulness-Based Health Promotion (MBHP) program on sleep, circadian rhythms, stress, and mental health in college students. Data about the usability of the online format are still rare in the literature, therefore, we also intend to verify the usability of this format. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with four-time points will compare the MBHP program with a sleep psychoeducation control. Recruitment will be done from a database derived from a cross-sectional study previously conducted. Students enrolled in at least one undergraduate course at two Brazilian universities (one public, another private) with poor subjective sleep quality will be randomized and allocated in the ratio 1:1. Primary outcomes will be sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Sleep Hygiene Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and circadian rhythms (Munich Chronotype Questionnaire, actigraphy, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and 24 h cortisol-profile). Secondary outcomes will be subjective well-being and stress. An additional weekly assessment will be done about the usability of the online mindfulness-based program (ease of use, compatibility, engagement, therapeutic pathway). Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate the effects of mindfulness on the circadian rhythms and sleep at four-time points. The efficacy of the program confirmation could influence and be considered for an academic policy aimed at promoting health in college students. The results about its usability will also help to highlight the best format for its application.Urban & Fischer1876-3820http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.EUJIM.2022.10212710.1016/J.EUJIM.2022.102127Sleep qualityPittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Sleep Hygiene Index, Epworth Sleepiness ScaleCircadian rhythms Munich Chronotype Questionnaire, actigraphy, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and 24 h cortisol-profileSubjective well-beingPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANAStudentsNARandomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Brazil
805NOJournal ArticleMindfulness for musicians: A mixed methods study investigating the effects of 8-week mindfulness courses on music students at a leading conservatoire2022Czajkowski AM,Greasley AE,Allis MMusicae ScientiaeMindfulness courses are beneficial in clinical domains for anxiety and depression and are becoming more prevalent as interventions in education. However, little is known about what effects mindfulness might have on musicians. In an exploratory study, 25 music students, who completed one of four 8-week MBSR/MBCT mindfulness courses adapted for musicians at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, completed the validated Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and a bespoke Mindfulness for Musicians questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. Twenty-one music students also took part in a post-intervention one-to-one semi-structured interview. Post-intervention mindfulness scores for both questionnaires increased significantly in comparison to pre-intervention scores. In interviews, participants were reportedly more aware and focused in instrumental lessons, were less self-critical, and developed increased body awareness, which improved their learning of instrumental technique. Participants also described enhanced teacher/pupil communication. In instrumental practice sessions, participants reported more efficient, effective and creative practice, and said that mindfulness exercises helped them deal with problems experienced while practising. Participants also described enhanced listening skills and improved socio-collaboration in ensemble rehearsals. They reported that mindfulness strategies had positive effects on music performance anxiety and described changes in time perception, enhanced expressivity, and positive post-performance effects. Future researchers could adopt a more robust methodology, such as a randomised controlled trial, and incorporate further design elements, such as longitudinal follow-up. Providing more systematic evidence of the beneficial role of mindfulness for conservatoire music students as learners and performers may encourage greater provision of such opportunities in musical settings in the future.SAGE Publications Ltd2045-4147http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/102986492094157010.1177/1029864920941570Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). FocusNASocio-collaborative relationshipsNAAnxietyNANANANANA25Students8Mixed methodMixed methodUnited Kingdom
815YESJournal ArticleA Self-Managed Online Mindfulness Program in a University-Wide Learning Management System Orientation Site: A Real-World Ecological Validation Study2022Chung J,Mundy ME,McKenzie SFrontiers in PsychologyThe efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in randomised-controlled trials and large experimental studies has been demonstrated in university student populations. Whilst these investigations have provided insight into the nature of the delivery of mindfulness-based practices, there has been little research in the implementation of self-managed online student wellbeing and mindfulness programs at university. This ecological validation study conducted in 2020 evaluated a real-world implementation of a large, university-wide, online mindfulness-based program that was accessible fully online via the tertiary institutions’ Learning Management System (LMS) student orientation site. The total sample included 833 participants from a range of disciplines and faculties at Monash University, Australia. At the end of the study, 236 (28.3%) participants were retained and completed the follow-up survey. Participants had the option to engage with the fully self-managed online mindfulness program for a 12-week semester. The mindfulness practices were pre-recorded, audio-guided sessions, and 10–15 min in length. Baseline and end of semester questionnaires included the 14-item Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the 18-item Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Participants who engaged with the mindfulness program over 3 or more weeks showed significant improvements in all three outcome measures, and all participants showed significant improvements in wellbeing at the end of semester. Learning analytics obtained via the LMS revealed that 58.6% (n = 489) had not logged into the mindfulness program at all, almost a third (31.0%, n = 259) logged into the program materials once or twice, and 10.2% (n = 85) of the whole sample engaged with the program actively, having logged in three or more times. The total number of student logins peaked in week 2, reduced between week 2 and week 7 and thereafter activity remained stable until the end of the semester. We hypothesise that the changes in wellbeing, stress and mindfulness at the end of the semester seen in the low engagement participants may partly be explained by the circumstances of COVID-19 restrictions improving. This study has revealed and discusses the complexities of student behaviour and implications for implementing an online mindfulness program in the real- world setting of a university.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2022.869765/BIBTEX;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3560269310.3389/FPSYG.2022.869765/BIBTEXWell‑beingWarwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being ScaleStress reliefThe Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14)Mindfulness LevelFive Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire-18NANANANANANA833Students12Quasi-experimental, single group, pre-test – post-test designQuasi-experimental studyAustralia
826YESJournal ArticleEvaluating the effects of a mindfulness mobile application on student pharmacists’ stress, burnout, and mindfulness2022Chu A,Rose TM,Gundrum DA,McMorris TE,Klausner EA,Lang LA,Shan GAmerican Journal of Health-System PharmacyPurpose: Pharmacists report high levels of burnout. Mindfulness approaches have been demonstrated to have positive results in the general population and in other healthcare professions. However, limited studies have been performed evaluating mindfulness approaches in student pharmacists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of daily use of a mindfulness mobile application in improving student pharmacists' perceived stress, burnout, and mindfulness. Methods: This study was a randomized, longitudinal, waitlist-controlled trial. The intervention group was asked to meditate using the mindfulness application Headspace daily for at least 6 weeks. The waitlist control group was asked to abstain from using the application for the entire study. Stress, burnout, and mindfulness were assessed using validated survey instruments at baseline, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks. A secondary outcome was to assess the persistence of application use after the intervention period. Results: Fifty-six participants completed the study. The intervention group reported significantly lower scores on stress and burnout at 6 weeks compared to the control group. The intervention group also reported significantly higher scores on mindfulness. The differences in stress, burnout, and mindfulness persisted at follow-up. The mean percentage of students in the intervention group who used the application each day was 90% over the intervention period and 62% over the follow-up period. Conclusion: A mindfulness mobile application significantly improved student pharmacists' stress, burnout, and mindfulness with daily use. Most participants continued to use the application for 4 weeks after the end of the intervention. Positive effects on stress and mindfulness persisted even with decreased use.Oxford Academic1079-2082https://academic-oup-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/ajhp/article/79/8/656/6453467;http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/AJHP/ZXAB467;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3486483010.1093/AJHP/ZXAB467Stress reliefNABurnoutNAMindfulness LevelNANANANANANANA56Students6Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
834NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-based interventions in undergraduate students: a systematic review2022Chiodelli R,de Mello LT,de Jesus SN,Beneton ER,Russel T,Andretta IJournal of American College HealthObjective To describe how mindfulness-based intervention (MBIs) are held with undergraduate students, systematize the outcomes of these interventions and indicate possible limitations. Method: Systematic searches were performed in seven databases in January 2019 with the following descriptors: (“mindfulness intervention” AND (“undergraduate” OR “college” OR “students”). Results: A total of 510 articles were found, and 19 articles fully met the inclusion criteria. The searches showed a visible growth in this field of research as articles publications increased in the past years. Regardless of intervention’s length, most studies reported beneficial effects. The examination of Anxiety, Stress, and Depression constructs have shown to be predominant. Even though study designs were mostly randomized controlled trials (RCT), it was noticed a shortage use of physiological measures and follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Nonetheless, MBIs have shown to be promising interventions to promote mental health in academic settings.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1767109;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3243297410.1080/07448481.2020.1767109Mental healthNANANANANANANANANANANANAStudentsNASystematic reviewReviewNA
845YESJournal ArticleEffects of the Interculturality and Mindfulness Program (PIM) on University Students: A Quasi-Experimental Study2022Chiodelli R,de Jesus SN,de Mello LT,Andretta I,Oliveira DF,Costa ME,Russell TEuropean Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 2022, Vol. 12, Pages 1500-1515Rates of mental health issues have been increasing among university students. This study investigates the effects of the Interculturality and Mindfulness Program (PIM) on academic students on mindfulness, emotional regulation, depression, anxiety, stress, life satisfaction, optimism, positive solitude, and loneliness. A quasi-experimental research was conducted, with pre- and post-test comparative measurements in three groups: in-person (IG), synchronous online (OG), and passive control (CG). A diverse group of students (n = 150; mean age = 25.4 ± 8.31) participated from two universities in Portugal. When compared to the CG, both active groups (IG and OG) demonstrated a beneficial interaction effect in acceptance, positive solitude, optimism, and mindfulness. The IG demonstrated a positive interaction effect in awareness and satisfaction with life, whereas the OG indicated a favorable interaction effect in impulse. When analyzing the intra-group effects, both active groups presented a significant improvement in stress, emotion regulation, mindfulness, positive solitude, and optimism. The OG demonstrated an improvement in awareness and loneliness. The main limitations of this research are that students were not randomly assigned, and groups were heterogeneous in nationality, education level, and sex. Nonetheless, PIM has indicated beneficial results in both IG and OG, and is a promising intervention for the prevention of mental health issues (e.g., stress, difficulties in emotional regulation, and loneliness), as well as for the promotion of well-being (e.g., positive solitude, mindfulness, life satisfaction, and optimism).Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute2254-9625http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/EJIHPE12100104;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3628608910.3390/EJIHPE12100104Emotional regulationDifficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS)Depression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Loneliness and Positive SolitudeLoneliness and Positive Solitude Scale (LPSS)AwarnessPhiladelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS).Satisfaction with LifeSatisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS).NANA150Students2Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyPortugal
856YesJournal ArticleAn online mindfulness intervention for medical students in South Africa: A randomised controlled trial2022Boyd N,Alexander DGSouth African Journal of PsychiatryBackground: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, an association was observed between medical students’ stress, possibly because of an intensive academic workload and clinical responsibilities, and mental ill health. The literature has shown the benefit of online mindfulness interventions for different mental health challenges. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of information on their benefit to medical students in South Africa. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore whether medical students attending an online mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) would show improved resilience and stress management compared with attendance at an online supportive counselling (SC) programme. Secondary to this was the viability of the intervention, for which an in-depth understanding of participants’ experiences was sought. Setting: The study setting was online through https://zoom.us/. Methods: Forty-five participants were randomly allocated between two 6-week, teacher-facilitated groups. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) of outcome, well-being, perceived stress and self-compassion scores conducted at three time points, as well as thematic analysis of participant feedback, contributed to quantitative and qualitative data. Results: Participants in both the groups showed significant improvement over time in measures of well-being, perceived stress and subjective stress management. Participants in the mindfulness group showed a statistically significant treatment effect in mindfulness at programme completion. A decrease in self-compassion over time was observed in both the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that in this South African medical student cohort, an online MBI and a SC programme are both feasible and show potential for reducing stress, increasing stress management and increasing resilience. Further study in this area is recommended.AOSIS Publishing2078-6786http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/SAJPSYCHIATRY.V28I0.184010.4102/SAJPSYCHIATRY.V28I0.1840Well‑beingWarwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being ScalePerceived stressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)resilienceNANANANANANANA45Students6Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)South Africa
864YESJournal ArticleA MINDFULNESS PROGRAM ADDRESSING SLEEP QUALITY AND STRESS: TRANSITION TO A TELEHEALTH FORMAT FOR HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS DURING COVID-192022Benham S,Enam N,Ivaturi SInternational Journal of TelerehabilitationMany higher education students report sleep problems, further exemplified along with stress at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Promising evidence supports the use of mindfulness programming, although synchronous telehealth sessions have not been adequately examined. This exploratory eight-session telehealth mindfulness program utilized a pretest-posttest quantitative design to examine changes in sleep quality and perceived stress for 16 higher education students enrolled at a health professions-focused university. Sleep quality changes were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Z=-3.234, p=0.0012, d=-0.808) and perceived stress with the Perceived Stress Scale (Z=-3.102, p=0.0019, d=-0.776), both of which were significant. The results suggest that synchronous mindfulness programming delivered via telehealth has the potential to improve sleep quality and perceived stress in students, however, future studies should consider the use of objective measurements of sleep duration and quality, and a control group.University Library System, University of Pittsburgh1945-2020http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/IJT.2022.643910.5195/IJT.2022.6439Sleep qualityPittsburg Sleep Quality Index 41 (PSQI)Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANA16Students4Exploratory, one-group pretest-posttest designPretest–post-test designUSA
874YESJournal ArticleMindfulness and Sustainable Consumption: Evidence from Students in Istanbul2022Batmaz FK,Ergen AAcademic Journal of Interdisciplinary StudiesWe are consuming more resources than ever, exceeding the planet's capacity for coming generations. This shows the important role of sustainable consumption for the planet. To understand consumption patterns mindfulness may be regarded as an indicator that helps people gain insight into their true selves, which leads them to stay away from materialistic tendencies. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the effects of mindfulness training on the sustainable consumption perceptions of university students. In this qualitative study, a two-month mindfulness training is given and two focus group studies are conducted. Results suggest that mindfulness training has an impact on people's perceptions related to consumption. The findings of this study can serve as proof for the transformational effect of mindfulness on people's overall mood and subjective wellbeing.Richtmann Publishing Ltd2281-4612http://dx.doi.org/10.36941/AJIS-2022-000510.36941/AJIS-2022-0005Sustainable consuptionNANANANANANANANANANANANAStudents8Focus groupsQualitative StudyTurkey
885NOJournal ArticleA Feasibility Study of a Program Integrating Mindfulness, Yoga, Positive Psychology, and Emotional Intelligence in Tertiary-Level Student Musicians2022Bartos LJ,Funes MJ,Ouellet M,Posadas MP,Immink MA,Krägeloh CMindfulnessObjectives: Higher education student musicians face high physical, psychological, and emotional demands affecting their well-being and academic experience. This study examined the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of the so-called CRAFT program, based on mindfulness, yoga, positive psychology, and emotional intelligence, to improve psychological well-being, psychological distress, emotional regulation, and physical flexibility amongst tertiary education student musicians. Methods: Using a single-arm pre-post study design, student musicians (n = 25) at a royal conservatory of music in Spain followed a 25-week CRAFT program that was curricularly implemented during the academic year 2018/2019, once a week for 50 min. The outcome measures included were the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Subjective Psychological Well-Being Subscale (SPWS), the Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the Sit and Reach Test (SRT). Results: Paired samples t-test and practical significance analyses revealed significant improvements for the total scale of the FFMQ (g = 0.28), the Observe (g = 0.44) and Describe (g = 0.38) subscales of the FFMQ, the SPWS (g = 0.32), the Reappraisal subscale of the ERQ (g = 0.43), and the SRT (g = 0.39). A similar pattern of results was observed in a filtered sample (n = 15) when excluding participants simultaneously engaged in yoga/meditation activities other than the CRAFT program. Conclusions: These results indicated that the CRAFT program is a promising intervention for improving mindfulness skills and health and well-being states and abilities amongst higher education student musicians. Further research is needed to substantiate these findings and extend them to similar settings and populations with complex psychophysical concerns.Springer1868-8535https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12671-022-01976-7;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-022-01976-7/TABLES/210.1007/S12671-022-01976-7/TABLES/2Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Well-beingThe Subjective Psychological Well-Being Subscale (SPWS),Emotional regulationThe Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ)Depression Anxiety and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANA25Students25Single-arm pre-post study designPretest–post-test designSpain
894NOJournal ArticleCollege students’ perceptions of mindfulness-based interventions: A narrative review of the qualitative research2022Bamber MD,Schneider JKCurrent PsychologyMindfulness-based interventions are thought to attenuate stress and anxiety while improving focus and awareness. College students are at risk for and often experience increased stress and anxiety. Consequently, college students may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions. The purpose of this systematic review of the qualitative literature was to understand and explain how college students perceive and depict mindfulness-based interventions. A thematic synthesis approach was used to analyze the literature. Nineteen qualitative studies were included, and four overarching themes identified: awareness, barriers to meditation, improved focus, and facilitator’s role. Awareness included three subordinate themes: emotion regulation, tools for future use, and relationship with others. Students stated that mindfulness-based interventions were overall beneficial and described them as a coping mechanism that attenuated their stress, anxiety, and emotions, improved learning, build relationships, and provided tools for future careers. Findings of this synthesis indicate that mindfulness-based interventions should be developed that specifically meet the needs of college students. Moreover, future researchers should examine the component of mindfulness-based interventions that students perceived as most beneficial and the differences in perceptions based on college major. Our review is a bridge to understanding the vital components of mindfulness-based interventions in college students.Springer1936-4733https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s12144-019-00592-4;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-019-00592-4/TABLES/110.1007/S12144-019-00592-4/TABLES/1FocusNAAwarnessNAImproved learningNABuild relationshipsNACopingNAEmotional regulationNANANANANarrative reviewQualitative StudyNA
905NOJournal ArticleEffect of an education and mindfulness-based physical activity intervention for the promotion of positive body image in Lithuanian female students2022Balciuniene V,Jankauskiene R,Baceviciene MEating and Weight DisordersPurpose: The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an 8-week classroom education and mindfulness-based physical activity intervention for the promotion of positive body image in female students. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out with 110 Lithuanian female students (mean age 21.5 ± 3.5, range 19–35 years). Thirty students voluntarily participated in the intervention programme and 80 students volunteered in the assessment-only control group. The intervention comprised five cognitive behavioural therapy classroom education sessions and mindfulness-based exercise (one exercise workout per week). The intervention group was evaluated with a pre-test and post-test and the control group completed measures at parallel times. Results: Compared with the control group participants, the intervention group participants reported greater improvements in positive body image and a reduction in body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness and internalisation of stereotyped beauty ideals, with medium to large effects. There were significant time × group interactions for pre-test to post-test changes in internalisation of beauty ideals, body area satisfaction, body dissatisfaction and body appreciation. In all cases, the interaction reflected greater pre-test to post-test changes in the intervention group compared with the control group, whose scores remained stable. A decrease in appearance orientation, overweight preoccupation, disordered eating and physical activity was observed in the control group, but the effect sizes were low. Conclusion: The preliminary findings of this study support the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy methods and mindfulness-based exercise intervention aimed to promote positive body image in student-aged women. Future studies should test the efficacy of the introduced programme in larger randomised samples of young women. Level IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without an intervention.Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH1590-1262https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/article/10.1007/s40519-021-01195-4;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S40519-021-01195-4/TABLES/5;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3387764610.1007/S40519-021-01195-4/TABLES/5Promote positive body imageNANANANANANANANANANANA110Female Students5Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyLithuania
915NOMiscellaneousThe effect of mindfulness levels on the life satisfaction of nursing students2022Aşık E,Albayrak SPerspectives in Psychiatric CarePurpose: This study was carried out to determine the effect of mindfulness levels on the life satisfaction of nursing students. Design and Methods: A descriptive correlational study was conducted on 333 nursing students enrolled at a state university in Turkey. Findings: The statistical analysis of the data indicated that students’ mindfulness levels had a significantly positive impact on their satisfaction with life. Implications for Practice: Activities that include exercises, meditation and training geared to raise the level of mindfulness can also be beneficial in terms of increasing satisfaction with life.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1744-6163http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/PPC.12898;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3421604210.1111/PPC.12898Satisfaction with lifeThe satisfaction with life scale (SWLS).AwarnessMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANANANANANA333Students1Descriptive correlational studySingle assessmentTurkey
925NOJournal ArticleInvestigating the effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on stress level and brain activity of college students2022An A,Hoang H,Trang L,Vo Q,Tran L,Le T,Le A,McCormick A,Old KD,Williams NS,Mackellar G,Nguyen E,Luong T,Nguyen,Nguyen K,Ha HIBRO Neuroscience ReportsFinancial constraints usually hinder students, especially those in low-middle income countries (LMICs), from seeking mental health interventions. Hence, it is necessary to identify effective, affordable and sustainable counter-stress measures for college students in the LMICs context. This study examines the sustained effects of mindfulness practice on the psychological outcomes and brain activity of students, especially when they are exposed to stressful situations. Here, we combined psychological and electrophysiological methods (EEG) to investigate the sustained effects of an 8-week-long standardized Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on the brain activity of college students. We found that the Test group showed a decrease in negative emotional states after the intervention, compared to the no statistically significant result of the Control group, as indicated by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (33% reduction in the negative score) and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-42) scores (nearly 40% reduction of three subscale scores). Spectral analysis of EEG data showed that this intervention is longitudinally associated with increased frontal and occipital lobe alpha band power. Additionally, the increase in alpha power is more prevalent when the Test group was being stress-induced by cognitive tasks, suggesting that practicing MBSR might enhance the practitioners’ tolerance of negative emotional states. In conclusion, MBSR intervention led to a sustained reduction of negative emotional states as measured by both psychological and electrophysiological metrics, which supports the adoption of MBSR as an effective and sustainable stress-countering approach for students in LMICs.Elsevier2667-2421http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.IBNEUR.2022.05.004;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3560169310.1016/J.IBNEUR.2022.05.004Negative emotional statesEEGStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Depression, anxiety, and stressDepression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-42)NANANANANANA49Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyVietnam
935NOJournal ArticleSocial climate in university classrooms: A mindfulness-based educational intervention2022Amutio A,Telletxea S,Mateos-Pérez E,Padoan S,Basabe NPsyCh JournalThere is a limited number of studies on the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on university students and their positive effect on collective experiences of shared flow. The aim of the present study was to explore the effectiveness of mindfulness training in terms of reducing stress and enhancing well-being, experiences of shared flow and classroom climate (engagement and affiliation). The intervention and control groups were matched by age and sex (n = 125; M = 20.71, SD = 4.60, 68% women). The intervention group comprised mindfulness exercises performed in the classroom over the course of 7 weeks. The principal variables were measured at pretest and posttest, and shared flow was also measured in the intervention group. In comparison with the control group, statistically significant differences were observed in the intervention group in relation to mindfulness, perceived stress, and classroom climate (affiliation). Furthermore, the perception of shared flow among students increased from the beginning to the end of the program. Mindfulness skills were found to mediate improvements in perceived well-being and stress. It is concluded that mindfulness practice can turn learning into a challenging and shared task. The study highlights the importance of fostering programs that enhance the development of competencies related to mindfulness among university students.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd2046-0260http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/PCHJ.509;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3496917610.1002/PCHJ.509Stress reliefNAWell-beingNAEngagement and affiliation in classroomNANANANANANANA125Students7Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designSpain
940NAJournal ArticleEffects of self-guided stress management interventions in college students: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022Amanvermez Y,Zhao R,Cuijpers P,de Wit LM,Ebert DD,Kessler RC,Bruffaerts R,Karyotaki EInternet InterventionsBackground: College students face several sources of stress. Self-guided stress management interventions offer an excellent opportunity for scaling up evidence-based interventions for self-management of these stresses. However, little is known about the overall effects of these interventions. Increasing this understanding is essential because self-guided stress management interventions might be a cost-effective and acceptable way of providing help to this important segment of the population during a critical life course stage. Methods: We carried out a systematic literature search of bibliographical databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Cochrane Library) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of self-guided stress management interventions published up through April 2020. We conducted two separate meta-analyses for perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. The first included interventions for general college student samples. The second included studies for students with high levels of perceived stress. Results: The first meta-analysis included 26 studies with 29 intervention-control comparisons based on a total of 4468 students. The pooled effect size was small but statistically significant (g = 0.19; 95% CI [0.10, 0.29]; p < 0.001). Results showed moderate heterogeneity across studies [I2 = 48%; 95% CI (19, 66%)]. The second meta-analysis, included four studies based on a total of 491 students with high levels of stress. The pooled effect size was small but statistically significant (g = 0.34; 95% CI [0.16, 0.52]; p < 0.001). Results showed no heterogeneity across studies (I2 = 0%; 95% CI [0, 79%]), but risk of bias was substantial. Discussion: Our results suggest that self-guided stress management programs may be effective when compared to control conditions, but with small average effects. These programs might be a useful element of a multi-component intervention system. Given the psychological barriers to treatment that exist among many college students, self-help interventions might be a good first step in facilitating subsequent help-seeking among students reluctant to engage in other types of treatment. More studies should be conducted to investigate these interventions, sample specifications, mediating effects, and individual-level heterogeneity of effects.Elsevier2214-7829http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.INVENT.2022.10050310.1016/J.INVENT.2022.100503NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
950NAJournal ArticleDispositional mindfulness, emotional regulation and perceived stress among nursing students2022Alves D,Costa V,Kogien M,Hartwig SV,Ferreira GE,Oliveira MK,Guimarães R,Regina M,Ribeiro RRevista da Escola de Enfermagem da USPABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the correlation between dispositional mindfulness, emotional regulation and perceived stress and to verify factors associated with dispositional mindfulness among nursing students. Method: A correlational, cross-sectional study with public undergraduate students. The following instruments were used: Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Emotional Regulation Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale. Analyzes were performed using t tests, Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: The study included 330 students. There was no correlation between dispositional mindfulness and general emotional regulation score and/or perceived stress and a weak correlation with the emotional regulation dimension emotional suppression. Being in psychological treatment and psychoactive substance use were associated with decreased dispositional mindfulness. Age, sufficient sleep hours and emotional suppression were associated with an increase in this variable. Conclusion: There was a relationship between dispositional mindfulness only with emotional suppression, in addition to the connection of this variable with the perception of sufficient sleep hours, age, use of alcohol or psychoactive substances, undergoing psychological/psychiatric follow-up and emotional suppression.Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Enfermagem0080-6234http://www.scielo.br/j/reeusp/a/snttM3HB3DSd9DhmgQdktDc/?lang=en;http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2022-0086EN10.1590/1980-220X-REEUSP-2022-0086ENNANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
964YESMiscellaneousThe benefits of a mindfulness program for university students: A qualitative exploration on intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships2022Altinyelken HK,Altinyelken CHThe Journal of Humanistic CounselingThis study explores the perceived benefits of a mindfulness program for university students, focusing on changes in their intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships. The findings underscore increased self-compassion and self-care and diminished levels of self-judgement. Mindfulness programs could be incorporated into counseling services in higher education to improve students’ well-being.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd2161-1939http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JOHC.1219710.1002/JOHC.12197Self-compassionNASelf-careNASelf-judgementNAwell-beingNANANANANA15Students8Interviews Qualitative StudyGermany, China, Aruba, Canada, Italy, Turkey, and Romania/South Africa
975NOJournal ArticleThe Benefits of Mindfulness Meditation on Trait Mindfulness, Perceived Stress, Cortisol, and C-Reactive Protein in Nursing Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial2022Alhawatmeh HN,Rababa M,Alfaqih M,Albataineh R,Hweidi I,Awwad AAAdvances in Medical Education and PracticePurpose: Mindfulness meditation was used to reduce stress and its responses such as cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP) among healthy and ill individuals in various cultures, but its effect has not yet been studied among nursing students, experiencing tremendous stress. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of mindfulness meditation on trait mindfulness, perceived stress, serum cortisol, and serum C-reactive proteins (CRP) in nursing students. Patients and Methods: Using a two-arm, randomized, parallel study (conducted in a large university in Jordan, 108 nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental group receiving five 30-minute weekly sessions of mindfulness meditation and control group sitting quiet during the experimental sessions. Trait mindfulness, perceived stress, serum cortisol, and CRP were measured at baseline and end of the intervention. Results: Using one-way MANOVA and post-hoc comparisons, the results showed that mindfulness meditation was significantly effective in decreasing serum cortisol levels and perceived stress. The mindfulness meditation also decreased CRP and increased trait mindfulness although the results did not reach statistically significant levels. Conclusion: These findings underscore the need for serious consideration of mindfulness meditation in nursing colleges to improve stress and raise immunity in this vulnerable population. Trial Registration: Mindfulness Meditation for Nursing Students: clinicaltrials.gov, identi-fier: NCT05099224.Dove Press1179-7258https://www.dovepress.com/the-benefits-of-mindfulness-meditation-on-trait-mindfulness-perceived--peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-AMEP;http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S34806210.2147/AMEP.S348062& C-reactive proteins (CRP)C-reactive proteins (CRP)Stress reliefNASerum cortisolELISA kitNANANANANANA108Students8Two-arm, randomized, parallel studyRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Jordan
985NOJournal ArticleEffectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Group Intervention for Chinese University Students with Sleep Problems2022Fu L,; Wei S,; Cheng J,; Wang X,; Zhou Y,; Li Y,Zheng H,Fu L,Wei S,Cheng J,Wang X,Zhou Y,Li Y,Zheng HInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022, Vol. 19, Page 755The increasing prevalence of sleep disorders among university students should be taken seriously. Group counseling involving a mindfulness-based strategy may help prevent students from developing insomnia and subsequent mental health disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the ameliorating effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention on sleep problems and emotional symptoms in university students in China. Twenty-one university students (16 females, 22.71 ± 4.28 years) who were not on medication were recruited and assigned to the intervention group based on the criterion of high levels of sleep problems. Additionally, twenty-four university students (19 females, 24.50 ± 0.93 years) were included as a nonrandomized control group. Individuals in the intervention group participated in a two-hour group intervention once a week for eight sessions. All participants completed self-reported questionnaire baseline tests, postintervention tests, and one-month follow-ups on mindfulness, sleep quality, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. The results revealed significant intervention effects, with significant differences observed between the two groups in mindfulness and sleep quality. However, there was no significant effect of the intervention on anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study contributes to a better understanding of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention in addressing sleep problems in university students.Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH19020755;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3505557710.3390/IJERPH19020755Sleep QualityPittsburg Sleep Quality Index 41 (PSQI)Mindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). & Anxiety Self-rating AnxietyScale (SAS)& DepressionCenter for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)NANANANA74Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyChina
995NOJournal ArticleEmotion Self-Regulation in Neurotic Students: A Pilot Mindfulness-Based Intervention to Assess Its Effectiveness through Brain Signals and Behavioral Data2022Babiker LI,; Rizki A,; Lu EE,Rahman A,Izhar LI,Babiker A,Rizki EE,Lu CK,Rahman MASensors 2022, Vol. 22, Page 2703Neuroticism has recently received increased attention in the psychology field due to the finding of high implications of neuroticism on an individual’s life and broader public health. This study aims to investigate the effect of a brief 6-week breathing-based mindfulness intervention (BMI) on undergraduate neurotic students’ emotion regulation. We acquired data of their psychological states, physiological changes, and electroencephalogram (EEG), before and after BMI, in resting states and tasks. Through behavioral analysis, we found the students’ anxiety and stress levels significantly reduced after BMI, with p-values of 0.013 and 0.027, respectively. Furthermore, a significant difference between students in emotion regulation strategy, that is, suppression, was also shown. The EEG analysis demonstrated significant differences between students before and after MI in resting states and tasks. Fp1 and O2 channels were identified as the most significant channels in evaluating the effect of BMI. The potential of these channels for classifying (single-channel-based) before and after BMI conditions during eyes-opened and eyes-closed baseline trials were displayed by a good performance in terms of accuracy ( 77%), sensitivity (76–80%), specificity (73–77%), and area-under-the-curve (AUC) (0.66–0.8) obtained by k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. Mindfulness can thus improve the self-regulation of the emotional state of neurotic students based on the psychometric and electrophysiological analyses conducted in this study.Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute1424-8220http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/S22072703;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3540831710.3390/S22072703NANAMindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016).  Self-regulationNAEmotional stateNANANANANA21Students6Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyMalaysia
1005NOMiscellaneousReducción del agotamiento en estudiantes de medicina mediante auto-cuidado durante la pandemia COVID-192021Zúñiga D,Torres-Sahli M,Nitsche P,Echeverría G,Pedrals N,Grassi B,Cisternas M,Rigotti A,Bitran M,Zúñiga D,Torres-Sahli M,Nitsche P,Echeverría G,Pedrals N,Grassi B,Cisternas M,Rigotti A,Bitran MRevista médica de ChileBackground: Medical students experience high levels of psychological stress during clinical training. However, most medical curricula do not teach self-care skills. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted medical education causing increased distress among students. Aim: To report the implementation and impact of an eight-week multifaceted mindfulness-based self-care program on medical students' distress and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: One hundred twenty-three fourth-year medical students attended the program as part of a mandatory course from April to May 2020, during the rising phase of COVID-19 in Chile. They were evaluated using validated tests before and immediately after the program. The measures included burnout, dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, traumatic stress reactions, general well-being, resilience, and stress coping strategies. Results: Burnout prevalence decreased from 48% to 24%, whereas students with high dispositional mindfulness increased from 25% to 44%. Burnout reduction was mostly due to decreased emotional exhaustion. Additionally, students reported lower levels of stress, self-blaming, and traumatic stress reactions alongside an increased use of active coping strategies and resilience levels after the program. Conclusions: A formal educational intervention, teaching self-awareness and self-regulation skills can help reduce medical students' distress and promote their well-being even amidst a pandemic.Sociedad Médica de Santiago0034-9887http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872021000600846;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3475134310.4067/S0034-98872021000600846BurnoutMaslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS)Perceived stressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Traumatic stress reactionRevised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R)Coping strategiesBrief-COPEMindfulness LevelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)ResilienceConnor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)123Students8Non-experimental, pre- and post-observational cohort studyPretest–post-test designChile
1010NAJournal ArticleSelf-Oriented Empathy and Compassion Fatigue: The Serial Mediation of Dispositional Mindfulness and Counselor’s Self-Efficacy2021Zhang L,Ren Z,Jiang G,Hazer-Rau D,Zhao C,Shi C,Lai L,Yan YFrontiers in PsychologyThis study aimed to explore the association between self-oriented empathy and compassion fatigue, and examine the potential mediating roles of dispositional mindfulness and the counselor’s self-efficacy. A total of 712 hotline psychological counselors were recruited from the Mental Health Service Platform at Central China Normal University, Ministry of Education during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019, then were asked to complete the questionnaires measuring self-oriented empathy, compassion fatigue, dispositional mindfulness, and counselor’s self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was utilized to analyze the possible associations and explore potential mediations. In addition to reporting confidence intervals (CI), we employed a new method named model-based constrained optimization procedure to test hypotheses of indirect effects. Results showed that self-oriented empathy was positively associated with compassion fatigue. Dispositional mindfulness and counselor’s self-efficacy independently and serially mediated the associations between self-oriented empathy and compassion fatigue. The findings of this study confirmed and complemented the etiological and the multi-factor model of compassion fatigue. Moreover, the results indicate that it is useful and necessary to add some training for increasing counselor’s self-efficacy in mindfulness-based interventions in order to decrease compassion fatigue.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2020.61390810.3389/FPSYG.2020.613908NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1024YESJournal ArticleEffectiveness of online mindfulness interventions on medical students' mental health: a systematic review2021Yogeswaran V,Morr CEBMC Public HealthBackground: Medical school typically presents students with a combination of academic and personal stressors that may lead to substandard mental health wellbeing. Meditation practices such as mindfulness facilitate a greater awareness of one's thoughts and feelings, thereby decreasing emotional reactivity. The use of mindfulness-based interventions delivered online has considerable potential in fostering self-care and helping medical students to handle mental health challenges. We examined the available evidence on the use of online mindfulness interventions in order to determine whether they are feasible and effective for improving medical students' mental health. Methods: We performed a systematic review guided by PRISMA guidelines and utilised the following databases: ProQuest, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, IEEE Explore, Cochrane, and CINAHL. The key search terms used include mindfulness, cognitive behavioural therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, online, web, virtual, internet cyber, app, medical students, residency students, and residents. English-language articles published in the last ten years that described online interventions for medical students or residents were included in the review. Results: Two studies describing the impact of online mindfulness interventions on medical students' mental health were identified. Research in this domain is nascent; available qualitative and quantitative evidence suggests benefits in self-compassion, perceived stress, cognitive skill use, mindfulness, creating coping mechanisms, and greater awareness of emotions and feelings. There was no evidence of the effectiveness of online mindfulness interventions on depression, anxiety and burnout. There was, however, general low program usage and participation tended to diminish near the conclusion of the interventions. Conclusions: The evidence found in the systematic review exhibits the potential for online mindfulness interventions to be effective in addressing some mental health challenges of medical students. There was insufficient evidence to support the use of online mindfulness interventions for burnout, depression, and anxiety. Longitudinal studies with randomised controlled trials are required to generate stronger and robust evidence.NANAhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12341-z;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-12341-z10.1186/s12889-021-12341-zMental healthNAWell-beingNANANANANANANANANANAStudentsNASystematic reviewReviewNA
1035NOJournal ArticleOn Mindfulness Training for Promoting Mental Toughness of Female College Students in Endurance Exercise2021Wang Y,Tian J,Yang QEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative MedicineObjective. The aim of this study was to examine the promoting effects of mindfulness training on female college students' mental toughness in endurance exercise. Methods. A cluster sampling method was used to select 60 female college students as subjects. Based on the body mass index (BMI), stratified randomization was used to divide them into the mindfulness-training group and the control group. Participants in mindfulness-training group had an 8-week mindfulness training, while participants in control group waited. Before and after training, Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used for pretest and posttest, and paired t-test and covariance analysis were performed on pretest and posttest between-group data. Results. (1) Paired t-test results showed the posttest scores (26.67 ± 3.56; 20.97 ± 3.66; 126.53 ± 8.59) of the three dimensions of description, nonresponse and FFMQ total score of the mindfulness-training group were higher than the pretest scores (25.53 ± 3.74; 19.23 ± 3.59; 121.43 ± 6.78). Statistical significance was shown in their differences (t = -2.25; -2.70; -3.25, p<0.05). However, there was no statistical significance in the pretest and posttest of control group. The covariance analyses showed the posttest scores of the mindfulness-training group in three dimensions of description, nonresponse, and FFMQ were higher than the posttest scores of the control group. Statistical significance was shown in their differences (F = 6.55; 6.08; 5.91; p<0.05). (2) Paired t-test showed posttest scores (46.50 ± 5.93; 30.40 ± 3.75; 15.00 ± 2.34) were significantly higher than pretest scores (42.60 ± 7.68; 26.50 ± 4.32; 12.87 ± 2.51) in all dimensions of the mental toughness of the mindfulness-training group. Statistical significance was shown in their differences (t = -3.135, -4.765, -4.922, p<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in the pretest and posttest scores in all dimensions of the mental toughness of the control group. The covariance analysis showed that the posttest scores of all dimensions of the mental toughness of the mindfulness-training group were higher than those of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant (F = 11.133, 12.101, 16.053, all p<0.001). (3) Paired t-test showed that the posttest score of the mindfulness-training group on exercise intensity perception immediately after 800-meter endurance run (5.67 ± 2.61) was lower than the pretest score (7.03 ± 1.24) and the difference was statistically significant (t = 4.18, p<0.001), while the difference was not statistically significant in the control group. The covariance analysis showed that the posttest score of the mindfulness-training group on exercise intensity perception was lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (F = 15.81, p<0.001). Conclusion. Mindfulness training improved the level of female college students' mindfulness and mental toughness in their endurance sports, while reducing the fatigue feeling of female college students in endurance sports.Hindawi Limited1741-4288http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/559611110.1155/2021/5596111Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Mental toughnessThe Psychological Toughness ScaleFatigue feeling in endurance sportsThe Subjective Fatigue ScaleNANANANANANA67Female Students8Experimental DesignRandomized controlled trial (RCT)China
1045YESJournal ArticleMeditating in Virtual Reality 3: 360° Video of Perceptual Presence of Instructor2021Waller M,Mistry D,Jetly R,Frewen PMindfulnessObjectives: The need for remote delivery of mental health interventions including instruction in meditation has become paramount in the wake of the current global pandemic. However, the support one may usually feel within the physical presence of an instructor may be weakened when interventions are delivered remotely, potentially impacting one’s meditative experiences. Use of head-mounted displays (HMD) to display video-recorded instruction may increase one’s sense of psychological presence with the instructor as compared to presentation via regular flatscreen (e.g., laptop) monitor. This research therefore evaluated a didactic, trauma-informed care approach to instruction in mindfulness meditation by comparing meditative responses to an instructor-guided meditation when delivered face-to-face vs. by pre-recorded 360° videos viewed either on a standard flatscreen monitor (2D format) or via HMD (i.e., virtual reality [VR] headset; 3D format). Methods: Young adults (n = 82) were recruited from a university introductory course and experienced a 360° video-guided meditation via HMD (VR condition, 3D format). They were also randomly assigned to practice the same meditation either via scripted face-to-face instruction (in vivo [IV] format) or when viewed on a standard laptop display (non-VR condition, 2D format). Positive and negative affect and meditative experience ratings were self-reported and participants’ maintenance of focused attention to breathing (i.e., meditation breath attention scores [MBAS]) were recorded during each meditation. Results: Meditating in VR (3D format) was associated with a heightened experience of awe overall. When compared to face-to-face instruction (IV format), VR meditation was rated as less embarrassing but also less enjoyable and more tiring. When compared to 2D format, VR meditations were associated with greater experiences of relaxation, less distractibility from the process of breathing, and less fatigue. No differences were found between VR and non-VR meditation in concentration (MBAS). Baseline posttraumatic stress symptoms were risk factors for experiencing distress while meditating in either (VR and non-VR) instructional format. Of those who reported a preference for one format, approximately half preferred the VR format and approximately half preferred the IV format. Conclusions: Recorded 360° video instruction in meditation viewed with a HMD (i.e., VR/3D format) appears to offer some experiential advantage over instructions given in 2D format and may offer a safe—and for some even preferred—alternative to teaching meditation face-to-face.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01612-W10.1007/S12671-021-01612-WRelaxationModified Differential Emotions ScaleStress reliefPosttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5NANANANANANANANA82Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyCanada
1054NOMiscellaneousRelación entre sesiones de atención plena y el nivel de estrés en estudiantes universitarios2021Villarroel-Carrasco K,Cruz-Riveros C,Villarroel-Carrasco K,Cruz-Riveros CEnfermería GlobalIntroduction: Academic stress constitutes an important problem to be addressed today, the student population during the last 10 years has faced various stressors triggering signs and symptoms, which are exacerbated when facing certain subjects. These subjects are those that include new methodologies in order to achieve the expected learning results, within which we find clinical simulation, which looks for situations close to the real thing. Objective: To determine the relationship between the number of Mindfulness sessions on the level of stress compared to clinical simulation methodology in university students of 3rd and 4th level of Nursing Career at a private University Antofagasta, Chile. Method: Quantitative, quasi-experimental experimental with post-intervention test measurement. A sample of 58 students was studied. To process the information, normality tests were applied to the variables of the applied scale (SISCO) using Shapiro-Wilks, ANOVA, Tukey's test and T tests (men and women). Results: The stress level presented in the sample is distributed as follows: 5% mild, 79% moderate, 16% profound. There is an association between stress and gender, as well as mean differences in physical and behavioral reactions in students who attend 4 sessions (physical reactions: 0.91 and compartment reactions: 1.07). Conclusion: It is shown that the greater the number of Mindfulness sessions, the lower the stress level in the areas of physical and behavioral reactions.Universidad de Murcia1695-6141http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/EGLOBAL.44239110.6018/EGLOBAL.442391Stress reliefSISCO Inventory of Academic StressNANANANANANANANANANA58Students4Quantitative, experimental of quasi-experimental type with post-intervention test measurementQuasi-experimental studyChile
1065YESJournal ArticleMulti-year investigation of a relaxation course with a mindfulness meditation component on college students’ stress, resilience, coping and mindfulness2021Vidic ZJournal of American College HealthObjective: Examine the effects of a relaxation course with a mindfulness meditation component in a two-group pre-test and post-test non‐randomized study design. Participants: Participants included 219 undergraduate students (experimental group: n = 103; control group: n = 116), 18–43 years old. Methods: Completion of measures of stress, resilience, coping and mindfulness at the beginning and end of the intervention. Results: The independent sample t-test analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in stress and maladaptive coping, and an increase in resilience in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Benefits were observed following the intervention by positively impacting factors associated with increased functioning in life. Classroom-based interventions could be considered beneficial for students.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.198791810.1080/07448481.2021.1987918Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)ResilienceBrief Resilience Scale CopingBrief Cope InventoryMindfulness LevelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANA219Students7Two-group pre-test-post-test designPretest–post-test designUSA
1074YESMiscellaneousMindfulness as a well-being initiative for future nurses: a survey with undergraduate nursing students2021Veigh CM,Reid J,Carswell C,Ace L,Walsh I,Graham-Wisener L,Rej S,Potes A,Atkinson K,Edginton T,Noble HBMC NursingBackground: Mindfulness can potentially positively impact well-being and resilience in undergraduate nursing students. The psychological well-being of such students undertaking clinical training is paramount to ensure optimal learning, and to equip them with skills to manage their wellbeing in future clinical practice. The aim of our study was to explore the views of undergraduate nursing students in relation to understanding and engaging with mindfulness, and how mindfulness could best be delivered within their university programme. Methods: An online survey was administered via a cloud-based student response system to a convenience sample of first year undergraduate nursing students completing a Bachelor of Science (BSc) Honours (Hons) degree in nursing at a University in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Results: The survey achieved a response rate of 78% (n = 208). Seventy-nine percent of participants had heard of mindfulness and were interested in taking part in a mindfulness programme. Respondents reported that the ideal delivery of the programme would consist of weekly 45-min, in person group sessions, over a 6-week period. Respondents also indicated that a mobile application could potentially facilitate participation in the programme. Thematic analysis of open-ended comments, and free text, within the survey indicated 4 overarching themes: 1) Perceptions of what mindfulness is; 2) Previous mindfulness practice experiences; 3) Impact of mindfulness in nursing; 4) The need for a future well-being initiative for undergraduate nursing students.NANAhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00783-0;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00783-010.1186/s12912-021-00783-0NANANANANANANANANANANANA208Students6SurveySingle assessmentUnited Kingdom
1086YESJournal ArticleThe impact of a web-based mindfulness, nutrition, and physical activity platform on the health status of first-year university students: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial2021Trottier CF,Lieffers JR,Johnson ST,Mota JF,Gill RK,Prado CMJMIR Research ProtocolsBackground: First-year university students are at an increased risk for developing mental health issues and a poor nutritional status. Self-care plays an essential role in optimizing mental health and can prevent or manage stress, anxiety, and depression. Web-based self-monitoring of diet and physical activity can lead to similar or improved health outcomes compared with conventional methods. Such tools are also popular among university students. Objective: The primary aim of this 12-week randomized controlled trial is to assess the impact of a web-based wellness platform on perceived stress among first-year university students. The secondary aim is to assess the effects of the platform on diet quality. The exploratory objectives are to explore the effects of the platform on body composition, health-related quality of life, mindfulness, mental well-being, and physical activity. Methods: A total of 97 first-year undergraduate students were randomized to either the intervention (n=48) or control (n=49) group. The intervention consisted of access to a web-based platform called My Viva Plan (MVP), which aims to support healthy living by focusing on the topics of mindfulness, nutrition, and physical activity. The platform is fully automated and guided by the principles of cognitive behavioral theory. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to use the MVP as frequently as possible over 12 weeks. The control group did not receive access to MVP. Perceived stress was assessed using the Stress Indicators Questionnaire at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Three-day food records were used to analyze the dietary intake at baseline and week 12. Health-related quality of life, mindfulness, mental well-being, and physical activity questionnaires were completed at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Body composition was assessed at baseline and week 12. Study assessments were completed in person at baseline and week 12 and electronically at week 6. Results: Study recruitment started in August 2018, with batch enrollment for students registered in the fall (September 2018 to December 2018) and winter (January 2019 to April 2019) academic terms at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Conclusions: This study is the first to explore the impact of a web-based platform designed to promote health and wellness on perceived stress and diet quality among first-year university students.JMIR Publications Inc.1929-0748http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/2453410.2196/24534Stress reliefThe Stress Indicators Questionnaire at baselineHealth-related quality of life12-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 2Mindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Mental well-beingWarwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale NANANANA97Students12Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Canada
1090NOJournal ArticleDo Correlations Between Mindfulness Components and Rumination in Student Athletes Support Mindfulness Training to Reduce Rumination?2021Tingaz EO,Çakmak SPerceptual and Motor SkillsIn the present study, we examined the relationship between mindfulness and rumination among student-athletes. Ninety-seven young adult student-athletes (38.1% female, 61.9% male; Mage = 22.52, SD =...SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA1558-688Xhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/00315125211005243;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00315125211005243;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3385345110.1177/00315125211005243NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1105NOJournal ArticleThe Effect of Pranayamic Breathing as a Positive Psychology Exercise on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety and Test Anxiety Among Language Learners at Tertiary Level2021Tasan M,Mede E,Sadeghi KFrontiers in PsychologyThis study investigated the impact of pranayamic breathing (PB) as a positive psychology exercise on mitigating foreign language anxiety (FLLA) and test anxiety (TA) of undergraduate English students studying at a Turkish university. Additionally, the study examined the effects of PB on academic achievement in listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants as well as exploring learners’ and their instructor’s perceptions of using PB techniques in their classrooms. The sample consisted of 140 sophomore English language learners. Two intact classes, each comprising 70 participants, were selected as the experimental and the control group using convenience sampling. Two basic PB techniques, Nadi Shodhana Pranayama and Bhramari Pranayama, were implemented to the experimental group on a weekly basis for a total of 7 weeks. In this mixed-method study, the quantitative data were gathered using English Language Learning Anxiety Scale, Foreign Language Test Anxiety Scale, and listening and reading achievement pre- and post-tests, while the qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and the teacher’s reflective journal. The findings revealed that the implementation of positive psychology technique of pranayama breathing mitigated the FLLA and TA levels significantly and also improved listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants to a considerable extent. The findings also demonstrated that both the students and their instructor perceived PB implementation as a useful and a practical medium in alleviating the anxious feelings, promoting the general class atmosphere and regulating daily habits despite the implementational challenges shared by the instructor.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2021.742060;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3465906110.3389/FPSYG.2021.742060English Language Learning AnxietyEnglish Language Learning Anxiety ScaleForeign Language AnxietyForeign Language Test Anxiety ScaleNANANANANANANANA140Students7Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyTurkey
1125YESMiscellaneousBeing Mindful at University: A Pilot Evaluation of the Feasibility of an Online Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Support Program for Students2021Světlák M,Linhartová P,Knejzlíková T,Knejzlík J,Kóša B,Horníčková V,Jarolínová K,Lučanská K,Slezáčková A,Šumec RFrontiers in PsychologyUniversity study can be a life period of heightened psychological distress for many students. The development of new preventive and intervention programs to support well-being in university students is a fundamental challenge for mental health professionals. We designed an 8-week online mindfulness-based program (eMBP) combining a face-to-face approach, text, audio, video components, and support psychotherapy principles with a unique intensive reminder system using the Facebook Messenger and Slack applications in two separate runs (N = 692). We assessed the program’s effect on mindful experiencing, perceived stress, emotion regulation strategies, self-compassion, negative affect, and quality of life. The results of the presented pilot study confirmed that eMBP is a feasible and effective tool in university students’ mental health support. The students who completed the eMBP reported a reduction of perceived stress with a large effect size (pη2 = 0.42) as well as a decrease of negative affect experience frequency and intensity (pη2 = 0.31), an increase of being mindful in their life (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire subscales:pη2 = 0.21, 0.27, 0.25, 0.28, 0.28), and a higher rate of self-compassion (pη2 = 0.28) with a medium effect size. A small effect size was found in the frequency of using a cognitive reappraisal strategy (pη2 = 0.073). One new result is the observation of an eMBP effect (pη2 = 0.27) on the decrease in attributed importance to the quality-of-life components replicated in two consecutive runs of the program. The study affirms that mindfulness-based interventions can be effectively delivered in an eHealth form to university students.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2020.581086/BIBTEX10.3389/FPSYG.2020.581086/BIBTEXPerceived stressNADecrease of negative affect experienceNAMindfulness LevelNASelf-compassionNANANANANA692Students8quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyCzech Republic
1136YESJournal ArticleA mindfulness-based mobile health (mHealth) intervention among psychologically distressed university students in quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic: A randomized controlled trial2021Sun S,Lin D,Goldberg S,Shen Z,Chen P,Qiao S,Brewer J,Loucks E,Operario DJournal of Counseling PsychologyThis randomized controlled trial evaluated the effect of a mindfulness-based mobile health (mHealth) intervention, tailored to the pandemic context, among young adult students (N = 114) with elevated anxiety and/or depressive symptoms during quarantine in China, compared to a time and attention-matched social support-based mHealth control. At baseline, postintervention (1 month), and 2-month follow-up, participants completed self-reports of primary outcomes (anxiety and depression), secondary outcomes (mindfulness and social support), and emotional suppression as a culturally relevant mechanism of change. Feasibility and acceptability were also evaluated. Using intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis, linear mixed effects models showed that compared to social support mHealth, mindfulness mHealth had a superior effect on anxiety (p =.024, between-group d = 0.72). Both conditions improved on depression (baseline-to-FU ds > 1.10, between-group difference not significant, d = 0.36 favoring mindfulness). There was an interaction of Emotional suppression reduction × Condition in the improvement of anxiety and depression. Further, mindfulness mHealth was demonstrated to be more feasible and acceptable in program engagement, evaluation, skills improvement, and perceived benefit. Retention was high in both conditions (>80%). The difference in self-reported adverse effect was nonsignificant (3.9% in mindfulness and 8.7% in social support). Results of this pilot trial suggest that both mindfulness and social support, delivered via mHealth, show promise in reducing distress among young adults in quarantine, with mindfulness being particularly effective in addressing anxiety. Successful implementation and dissemination of this mHealth intervention approach have the potential for addressing the psychological consequences of the pandemicUS: American Psychological Association1939-2168http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/COU0000568;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3426469610.1037/COU0000568AnxietyNAdepressionNANANANANANANANANA114Students4Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)China
1145NOJournal ArticleEffectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention technique in reducing stress levels of anesthesiology and intensive therapy residents2021Sugiharto P,Ramlan AABali Journal of AnesthesiologyBackground: An anesthesiologist is expected to be able to manage intraoperative crises that can occur at any time. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) technique in reducing stress levels of anesthesiology and intensive therapy residents at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. Materials and Methods: This research was an experimental study with paired one group design. The MBI program lasted 4 weeks, consisted of one formal face-to-face training and 4 weeks of informal training (homework). Thirteen study subjects met the inclusion criteria and did not enter the exclusion criteria. One study subject was excluded because the subject did not complete the informal training. Data collection on the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) was conducted before and after training. Results: The average age of study subjects was 29.75 years; 75% are women. Four participants were in the 1st year of education (33%), 3 participants were in the 2nd year of education (25%), 2 participants were in the 3rd year of education (16.67%), and 3 participants were in the 4th year of education (25%). PSS-10 score in the study subjects significantly decreased after applying the MBI technique for 4 weeks (P = 0.001). Conclusion: MBI is effective in reducing stress levels of anesthesiology and intensive therapy residents at the-blinded.Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.2549-2276http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/BJOA.BJOA_251_2010.4103/BJOA.BJOA_251_20Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANANANA47Students4Experimental study with paired one group designRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Indonesia
1155YESJournal ArticleExperience of an 8-Week Online Mindfulness Intervention for Nursing Students: Qualitative Findings2021Spadaro KC,Hunker DFNurse EducatorBackground Nurses returning to school often have stressors of work, family, and other obligations. Strategies are needed to mitigate the additional stress and promote academic success. Mindfulness is one proposed strategy. Purpose The purpose was to explore the experience of students participating in an 8-week mindfulness intervention. Methods A mixed-methods descriptive study used an emailed survey link with 13 open-ended questions at intervention completion. Interpretive description guided the qualitative analysis. Participant retention, reported practice frequency, and written feedback were analyzed for feasibility and acceptability. Results Twenty-six participants completed the survey. Time commitment, increased awareness, focus and concentration, and enhanced coping were identified themes. Findings supported the impact of mindfulness on student stress, anxiety and cognition, as well as acceptability and feasibility. Conclusions An online mindfulness program appeared effective, feasible, and acceptable. Qualitative findings informed the quantitative outcomes. Nursing faculty can impact student stress and academic success through mindfulness with their teaching.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins1538-9855https://journals.lww.com/nurseeducatoronline/Fulltext/2021/05000/Experience_of_an_8_Week_Online_Mindfulness.23.aspx;http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000881;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3265808810.1097/NNE.0000000000000881Stress reliefNAAnxietyNACognitionNACopingNAFocus and concentrationNAAwarenessNA26Students8Mixed-methods descriptive study Mixed MethodUSA
1166YESJournal ArticleImpact of App-Delivered Mindfulness Meditation on Functional Connectivity, Mental Health, and Sleep Disturbances Among Physician Assistant Students: Randomized, Wait-list Controlled Pilot Study2021Smith JL,Allen JW,Haack CI,Wehrmeyer KL,Alden KG,Lund MB,Mascaro JSJMIR Form Res 2021;5(10):e24208 https://formative. jmir. org/2021/10/e24208Background: Health care provider and trainee burnout results in substantial national and institutional costs and profound social effects. Identifying effective solutions and interventions to cultivate resilience among health care trainees is critical. Although less is known about the mental health needs of physician assistants (PAs) or PA students, accumulating research indicates that they experience similarly alarming rates of burnout, depression, and emotional exhaustion. Mobile app–delivered mindfulness meditation may be an effective part of salubrious programming to bolster long-term resilience and health among PA students. Objective: This study aims to examine the impact of app-delivered mindfulness meditation on self-reported mental health symptoms among PA students. A secondary aim is to investigate changes in brain connectivity to identify neurobiological changes related to changes in mental health symptoms. Methods: We recruited PA students enrolled in their third semester of PA school and used a longitudinal, randomized, wait-list–controlled design. Participants randomized to the mindfulness group were provided 1-year subscriptions to the 10% Happier app, a consumer-based meditation app, and asked to practice every day for 8 weeks. Before randomization and again after completion of the 8-week program, all participants completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as self-report assessments of burnout, depression, anxiety, and sleep impairment. App use was acquired as a measure of mindfulness practice time. Results: PA students randomized to the mindfulness group reported improvements in sleep impairment compared with those randomized to the wait-list control group (ηp2=0.42; P=.01). Sleep impairment decreased significantly in the mindfulness group (19% reduction; P=.006) but not in the control group (1% reduction; P=.71). There were no other significant changes in mental health for those randomized to app-delivered mindfulness. Across all students, changes in sleep impairment were associated with increased resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (a component of the default mode network) and the superior temporal gyrus, as well as between areas important for working memory. Changes in connectivity predicted categorical conversion from impaired to nonimpaired sleep in the mindfulness group. Conclusions: This pilot study is the first to examine app-based mindfulness for PA students’ mental health and investigate the impact of mindfulness on PA students’ brain function. These findings suggest that app-delivered mindfulness may be an effective tool to improve sleep dysfunction and that it may be an important part of the programming necessary to reduce the epidemic of suffering among health profession trainees.JMIR Formative Research2561-326Xhttps://formative.jmir.org/2021/10/e24208;http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/2420810.2196/24208Mental HealthNASleep DisturbancesNANANANANANANANANA16Students8Randomized, Wait-list Controlled Pilot StudyPilot studyUSA
1175NOJournal ArticleThe Efficacy of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention for College Students Under Extremely Stressful Conditions2021Smit B,Stavrulaki EMindfulnessObjectives: This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI), called Koru mindfulness, among college students. Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 34) participated in a 4-week mindfulness curriculum embedded within a college course, while a control group (N = 35) taking a different course did not. Notably, the intervention coincided with the start of a state-wide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Despite the additional external stress, there was a significant main effect and a significant interaction between the intervention and time for state mindfulness, (the treatment group experienced increased state mindfulness). There was a significant main effect (higher for the control group) on coronavirus worry and a significant interaction between the intervention and time for perceived stress, with the treatment/control group experiencing decreased/increased stress over time. There was also a significant interaction between the intervention and time for sleep problems with the intervention group experiencing declines in sleep problems over time and also being more likely to experience optimal amounts of sleep over time. Conclusions: The Koru intervention effectively increased state mindfulness, decreased stress, and improved sleep, suggesting that it is robust even under extremely stressful conditions. This study adds to the growing evidence that MBIs can play an important role in addressing rising concerns regarding the mental health of college students.Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01772-9;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01772-9/FIGURES/110.1007/S12671-021-01772-9/FIGURES/1Mindfulness levelState Mindfulness Scale (SMS)Coronavirus WorryPenn State Worry Questionnaire (Meyer et al., 1990)& Perceived StressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Sleep Problems and duration9-item sleep problems index II scale (SLPII) and (b) the 1-item sleep quality/durationNANANANA70Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
1184YESJournal ArticleEffects of an eight-week, online mindfulness program on anxiety and depression in university students during COVID-19: A randomized controlled trial2021Simonsson O,Bazin O,Fisher SD,Goldberg SBPsychiatry ResearchThe COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse mental health effects for many groups in British society, especially young adults and university students. The present study reports secondary outcomes (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression) from a randomized waitlist controlled trial, with a one-month post-intervention follow-up, on the effects of a guided, eight-week mindfulness program delivered online during the COVID-19 pandemic among students at the University of Oxford. Longitudinal multilevel models showed greater reductions in anxiety but not depression symptoms for participants in the mindfulness condition relative to participants in the waitlist control condition (time X group B=-0.36, p=.025).Elsevier Ireland Ltd1872-7123http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.PSYCHRES.2021.114222;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3460145010.1016/J.PSYCHRES.2021.114222AnxietyNA& DepressionNANANANANANANANANA97Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)United Kingdom
1194NOJournal ArticleThe efficacy of mindfulness-based intervention in ameliorating externalizing behaviors and attentional concerns among college students2021Sharma S,Palomares-Fernandez RJournal of American College HealthObjective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention among college students with externalizing behaviors and attentional problems. Participants: Three students attending their first year in college received mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention and data were collected pre-intervention, during the intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up. Methods: The study utilized a single-case design (SCD). Data were collected via the Conners continuous performance test, Third Edition (CPT-3), the Conners Continuous Auditory Test of Attention (CATA), the Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children, Flex Monitor, Third Edition (BASC-3 FM), and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results: Data were analyzed by calculating standard error of the difference, reliable change index, non-overlap of all pairs (NAP), and Tau-U. Conclusions: The results of this study strongly suggest that mindfulness may be an effective intervention for addressing externalizing behaviors and attentional problems among first-year college students.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.190903810.1080/07448481.2021.1909038AttentionContinuous Auditory Test of Attention (CATA).AttentionThe BASC-31 NANANANANANANANA3Students8Single-case design (SCD)Quasi-experimental studyUSA
1214NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-based psychological interventions for improving mental well-being in medical students and junior doctors2021Sekhar P,Tee QX,Ashraf G,Trinh D,Shachar J,Jiang A,Hewitt J,Green S,Turner TCochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsBackground: Mindfulness interventions are increasingly popular as an approach to improve mental well-being. To date, no Cochrane Review examines the effectiveness of mindfulness in medical students and junior doctors. Thus, questions remain regarding the efficacy of mindfulness interventions as a preventative mechanism in this population, which is at high risk for poor mental health. Objectives: To assess the effects of psychological interventions with a primary focus on mindfulness on the mental well-being and academic performance of medical students and junior doctors. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase and five other databases (to October 2021) and conducted grey literature searches. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials of mindfulness that involved medical students of any year level and junior doctors in postgraduate years one, two or three. We included any psychological intervention with a primary focus on teaching the fundamentals of mindfulness as a preventative intervention. Our primary outcomes were anxiety and depression, and our secondary outcomes included stress, burnout, academic performance, suicidal ideation and quality of life. Data collection and analysis: We used standard methods as recommended by Cochrane, including Cochrane's risk of bias 2 tool (RoB2). Main results: We included 10 studies involving 731 participants in quantitative analysis. Compared with waiting-list control or no intervention, mindfulness interventions did not result in a substantial difference immediately post-intervention for anxiety (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.09, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.52; P = 0.67, I2= 57%; 4 studies, 255 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Converting the SMD back to the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21-item self-report questionnaire (DASS-21) showed an estimated effect size which is unlikely to be clinically important. Similarly, there was no substantial difference immediately post-intervention for depression (SMD 0.06, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.31; P = 0.62, I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 250 participants; low-certainty evidence). Converting the SMD back to DASS-21 showed an estimated effect size which is unlikely to be clinically important. No studies reported longer-term assessment of the impact of mindfulness interventions on these outcomes. For the secondary outcomes, the meta-analysis showed a small, substantial difference immediately post-intervention for stress, favouring the mindfulness intervention (SMD -0.36, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.13; P < 0.05, I2= 33%; 8 studies, 474 participants; low-certainty evidence); however, this difference is unlikely to be clinically important. The meta-analysis found no substantial difference immediately post-intervention for burnout (SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.84 to 0.00; P = 0.05, I² = 0%; 3 studies, 91 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The meta-analysis found a small, substantial difference immediately post-intervention for academic performance (SMD -0.60, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.14; P < 0.05, I² = 0%; 2 studies, 79 participants; very low-certainty evidence); however, this difference is unlikely to be clinically important. Lastly, there was no substantial difference immediately post-intervention for quality of life (mean difference (MD) 0.02, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.32; 1 study, 167 participants; low-certainty evidence). There were no data available for three pre-specified outcomes of this review: deliberate self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviour. We assessed the certainty of evidence to range from low to very low across all outcomes. Across most outcomes, we most frequently judged the risk of bias as having 'some concerns'. There were no studies with a low risk of bias across all domains. Authors' conclusions: The effectiveness of mindfulness in our target population remains unconfirmed. There have been relatively few studies of mindfulness interventions for junior doctors and medical students. The available studies are small, and we have some concerns about their risk of bias. Thus, there is not much evidence on which to draw conclusions on effects of mindfulness interventions in this population. There was no evidence to determine the effects of mindfulness in the long term.John Wiley and Sons Ltd1465-1858http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013740.PUB2/MEDIA/CDSR/CD013740/IMAGE_N/NCD013740-CMP-001.07.SVG;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3489004410.1002/14651858.CD013740.PUB2/MEDIA/CDSR/CD013740/IMAGE_N/NCD013740-CMP-001.07.SVG& AnxietyDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)& DepressionDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Stress ReliefDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANANANA0StudentsNASystematic literature reviewReviewNA
1200NAJournal ArticleMindfulness and academic emotions: A field study during a lecture2021Senker K,Fries S,Dietrich J,Grund ALearning and Individual DifferencesThe aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two lecture sessions in which we measured momentary mindfulness and academic emotions of N = 105 university students repeatedly, resulting in N = 551 measurements. As expected, multilevel analyses indicated that students who were more mindful during the lecture felt more positive and less negative activating emotions, better valence, and were more optimistic about an upcoming exam. In contrast to our hypotheses, trait mindfulness was not found to be related to current academic emotions. Multilevel mediation analyses point towards an indirect effect of trait mindfulness via momentary mindfulness during the lecture sessions. These findings suggest that mindfulness is of high relevance to academic emotions which in turn are important for learning, achievement, and well-being.JAI1041-6080http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.LINDIF.2021.10207910.1016/J.LINDIF.2021.102079NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1225NOJournal ArticleMindful practices to support university faculty sense of wellbeing and enhance their teaching-learning scholarship: a mixed-method pilot study2021Schwind JK,Beanlands H,McCay E,Wang A,Binder M,Aksenchuk S,Martin JJournal of Further and Higher EducationTeaching-learning approaches of university faculty increasingly include supporting their own wellbeing, as well as that of their students. Engaging in mindful practices has the potential to increas...Routledge1469-9486https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/0309877X.2021.1895092;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2021.189509210.1080/0309877X.2021.1895092Stress reliefToronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS)Emotional Well-beingWHO-FIVE Well-Being Index (WHO-5)Self-careSelf-compassion Scale (SCS)NANANANANANA22Students3mixed-method pilot studyPilot Studycanada
1235NOJournal Article“I Can Math!”: Reducing Math Anxiety and Increasing Math Self-Efficacy Using a Mindfulness and Growth Mindset-Based Intervention in First-Year Students2021Samuel TS,Warner JCommunity College Journal of Research and PracticeMath anxiety is a debilitating problem that affects many community college students. Neuropsychological research suggests that negative rumination when anticipating math situations substantially exhausts working memory load, contributes to execution anxiety, which interferes with learning and performance. Studies have shown that improving the psychological experience in the classroom could have a positive impact on students’ academic achievement. However, there is little to no research employing interventions designed to specifically address anticipation and execution math anxiety in community college students. The current research investigated the effect of embedding a combined mindfulness and growth mindset intervention within a required first-year, two-semester developmental statistics course. Results from this mixed methods pilot study indicate that this new combined approach not only reduced math anxiety, but had also increased math self-efficacy in a sample of college students. Replication of the research is warranted in order to substantiate the preliminary results.Routledge1521-0413http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2019.1666063https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2019.1666063Math anxietyMath Anxiety Rating ScaleMath self-efficacyMath Self-Efficacy ScaleNANANANANANANANA40Students12Embedded-experimental mixed method designMixed MethodUSA
1245NOJournal ArticleEffect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on academic grit among university student2021Rusadi RM,Sugara GS,Isti'adah FNCurrent Psychology 2021Mindfulness based Cognitive therapy (MBCT) is generally considered to be the most effective psychological treatment for depression. There is no research to demonstrate that Mindfulness based cognitive therapy in to the treatment of academic grit. The present pilot study aimed to examine efficacy MBCT to improve academic grit, with a focus on mindfulness and cognitive technique which focuses more on experiential techniques into a group format. This new intervention for academic grit is described session-by-session. Experimental design with the one-group pretest-posttest design. Thirteen student with low score of grit participated in a six session MBCT in a group format. Pretest and posttest scores of academic grit consisting passion and perseverance were compared. Results demonstrated a significant to improve academic grit and dimension of passion and preseverance. A large effect size was found for the improvement. This confirmed the first hypothesis, that there would be a improvement in the level of grit score from pre- to post-intervention. The current study suggests that group MBCT might be an effective treatment for academic grit. However, our sample size was small and this was an uncontrolled study. Therefore, it is necessary to test this intervention in a randomized controlled trial with follow-up assessments.Springer1936-4733https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-021-01795-4;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-021-01795-410.1007/S12144-021-01795-4Academic gritStudent Grit InventoryNANANANANANANANANANA13Students6Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyIndonesia
1255YESJournal ArticleThe use of task shifting to improve treatment engagement in an internet-based mindfulness intervention among Chinese university students: Randomized controlled trial2021Rodriguez M,Eisenlohr-Moul TA,Weisman J,Rosenthal MZJMIR Formative ResearchBackground: Traditional in-person psychotherapies are incapable of addressing global mental health needs. Use of computer-based interventions is one promising solution for closing the gap between the amount of global mental health treatment needed and received. Objective: Although many meta-analyses have provided evidence supporting the efficacy of self-guided, computer-based interventions, most report low rates of treatment engagement (eg, high attrition and low adherence). The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of an adjunctive treatment component that uses task shifting, wherein mental health care is provided by nonspecialist peer counselors to enhance engagement in an internet-based, self-directed, evidence-based mindfulness intervention among Chinese university students. Methods: From 3 universities across China, 54 students who reported at least mild stress, anxiety, or depression were randomly assigned to a 4-week internet-based mindfulness intervention (MIND) or to the intervention plus peer counselor support (MIND+), respectively. Be Mindful delivers all the elements of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in an internet-based, 4-week course. Participants completed daily monitoring of mindfulness practice and mood, as well as baseline and posttreatment self-reported levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and trait mindfulness. We screened 56 volunteer peer counselor candidates who had no former training in the delivery of mental health services. Of these, 10 were invited to participate in a day-long training, and 4 were selected. Peer counselors were instructed to provide 6 brief (15-20 minute) sessions each week, to help encouraging participants to complete the internet-based intervention. Peer counselors received weekly web-based group supervision. Results: For both conditions, participation in the internet-based intervention was associated with significant improvements in mindfulness and mental health outcomes. The pre-post effect sizes (Cohen d) for mindfulness, depression, anxiety, and stress were 0.55, 0.95, 0.89, and 1.13, respectively. Participants assigned to the MIND+ (vs MIND) condition demonstrated significantly less attrition and more adherence, as indicated by a greater likelihood of completing posttreatment assessments (16/27, 59% vs 7/27, 26%; χ21=6.1; P=.01) and a higher percentage of course completion (72.6/100, 72.6% vs 50.7/100, 50.7%; t52=2.10; P=.04), respectively. No significant between-group differences in daily frequency and duration of mindfulness practice were observed. Multilevel logistic growth models showed that MIND+ participants reported significantly greater pre-post improvements in daily stress ratings (interaction estimate 0.39, SE 0.18; t317=2.29; P=.02) and depression (interaction estimate 0.38, SE 0.16; t330=2.37; P=.02) than those in the MIND condition. Conclusions: This study provides new insights into effective ways of leveraging technology and task shifting to implement large-scale mental health initiatives that are financially feasible, easily transportable, and quickly scalable in low-resource settings. The findings suggest that volunteer peer counselors receiving low-cost, low-intensity training and supervision may significantly improve participants’ indices of treatment engagement and mental health outcomes in an internet-based mindfulness intervention among Chinese university students.JMIR Publications Inc.2561-326Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.2196/2577210.2196/25772DepressionDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)AnxietyThe 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) Stress ReliefPerceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a 14-item Mindfulness LevelThe Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)NANANANA54Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyChina
1266YESJournal ArticleA mindfulness-based intervention for student depression, anxiety, and stress: randomized controlled trial2021Ritvo P,Ahmad F,Morr CE,Pirbaglou M,Moineddin RJMIR Mental HealthBackground: University students are experiencing higher levels of distress and mental health disorders than before. In addressing mental health needs, web-based interventions have shown increasing promise in overcoming geographic distances and high student-to-counselor ratios, leading to the potential for wider implementation. The Mindfulness Virtual Community (MVC) program, a web-based program, guided by mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapy principles, is among efforts aimed at effectively and efficiently reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in students. Objective: This study’s aim was to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-week MVC program in reducing depression, anxiety, and perceived stress (primary outcomes), and improving mindfulness (secondary outcome) in undergraduate students at a large Canadian university. Guided by two prior randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that each demonstrated efficacy when conducted during regular university operations, this study coincided with a university-wide labor strike. Nonetheless, the students’ response to an online mental health program on a disrupted campus can provide useful information for anticipating the impact of other disruptions, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as future disruptions. Methods: In this parallel-arm RCT, 154 students were randomly allocated to an 8-week MVC intervention (n=76) or a wait-list control (WLC) condition (n=78). The MVC intervention included the following: (1) educational and mindfulness video modules, (2) anonymous peer-to-peer discussions, and (3) anonymous, group-based, professionally guided, 20-minute videoconferences. Study outcomes were evaluated at baseline and at 8-week follow-up using the following: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF). Generalized estimation equations with an AR (1) covariance structure were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention, with outcome evaluations performed on both an intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) basis. Results: Participants (n=154) included 35 males and 117 females with a mean age of 23.1 years. There were no statistically significant differences at baseline between the MVC and WLC groups on demographics and psychological characteristics, indicating similar demographic and psychological characteristics across the two groups. Results under both ITT and PP approaches indicated that there were no statistically significant between-group differences in PHQ-9 (ITT: β=–0.44, P=.64; PP: β=–0.62, P=.053), BAI (ITT: β=–2.06, P=.31; PP: β=–2.32, P=.27), and FFMQ-SF (ITT: β=1.33, P=.43; PP: β=1.44, P=.41) compared to WLC. There was a significant difference for the PSS (ITT: β=–2.31, P=.03; PP: β=–2.38, P=.03). Conclusions: During a university labor strike, the MVC program led to statistically significant reductions in PSS compared to the WLC group, but there were no other significant between-group differences. Comparisons with previous cycles of intervention testing, undertaken during nondisrupted university operations, when efficacy was demonstrated, are discussed. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN92827275; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN92827275.JMIR Publications Inc.2368-7959http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/2349110.2196/23491& HealthPatient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)& AnxietyThe Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)Stress ReliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Mindfulness LevelFive Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF).NANANANA154Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Canada
1276YESJournal ArticleA randomized controlled trial of an app-delivered mindfulness program among university employees: effects on stress and work-related outcomes2021Rich RM,Ogden J,Morison LInternational Journal of Workplace Health ManagementPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact on stress and work-related outcomes of an app-delivered mindfulness-based program (MBP; Headspace®) offered to employees in a UK higher education (HE) institution. Design/methodology/approach: Using a randomized waitlist control trial design, participants were randomly allocated to be offered a mindfulness-based program (MBP) immediately for 2 months or after a waiting list period of 2 months (WLC). Data were analyzed using Intention to Treat (ITT; MBP n = 62; WLC n = 63); with supplementary analysis restricting to those who completed all measures; (MBP n = 45; WLC n = 56) and then further restricting the MBP group to those who completed at least foundation level 1 of the app; (MBP n = 31; WLC n = 56). Findings: The ITT analysis showed significant increases in several aspects of mindfulness and a significant reduction in perceived stress but no significant effects for work-related outcomes. Analysis restricted to MBP participants who completed the app foundation course showed a similar pattern but in addition showed significant increases in work-life balance and the emotional aspect of job engagement. Practical implications: The offer of the Headspace® app in the HE sector may result in reduced perceived stress. If improvements in work-related outcomes are also to be seen, then users need to be encouraged to complete a minimum level of practice. Originality/value: Effect size estimates for stress and work-related outcomes of an app-delivered MBP contribute to the evolving picture of MBPs in the workplace.Emerald Group Holdings Ltd.1753-836Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJWHM-04-2020-004610.1108/IJWHM-04-2020-0046Perceived stressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Mindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). & Work-related outcomesWork-life balance was measured using 5 items developed by ValcourNANANANANANA125University employees8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)United Kingdom
1285YESJournal ArticleUse of a mindfulness application to promote students’ mental well-being during COVID-19-era2021Rath A,Wong M,Wong N,Brockman RJournal of Dental EducationNAJohn Wiley and Sons Inc1930-7837http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JDD.12635;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3389374710.1002/JDD.12635Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). ResilienceResilience Scale for Adults-3Depression, anxiety, and stressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANANANA218Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyMalaysia
1296YESJournal ArticleEffectiveness of online mindfulness-based intervention (Imbi) on inattention, hyperactivity–impulsivity, and executive functioning in college emerging adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A study protocol2021Pheh KS,Tan KA,Ibrahim N,Sidik SMInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common neurodevelopmental disorder, often persists into adulthood. In Malaysia, the prevalence rate of hyperactivity symptoms is highest among Chinese Malaysians. There are limited evidence-based treatment options targeting the core symptoms of ADHD, as well as executive functioning. In addition, conventional psychotherapeutic approaches for adults with ADHD have been found to be highly labor-intensive. The present study will evaluate the effectiveness of an online mindfulness-based intervention to reduce inattention and hyperactivity–impulsivity and improve executive functioning among Chinese Malaysian college emerging adults with ADHD. Informed by established literature, we will design an 8-week online mindfulness-based intervention (i.e., iMBI). We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing an iMBI plus treatment-as-usual group (n = 54) and an enhanced treatment-as-usual control group (n = 54). Outcome measures of inattention, hyperactivity–impulsivity, and executive functioning will be collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 1-month post-intervention. The findings of the present study will not only demonstrate the implementation of iMBI as a new treatment modality but also inform practitioners on the effectiveness of iMBI in reducing the burden of adults living with ADHD.MDPI AG1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH18031257;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3357334110.3390/IJERPH18031257Inattention and hyperactivity–impulsivitythe Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS v1.1NANANANANANANANANANA108Students4Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)China - Malaysia
1315NOMiscellaneousMindfulness-based intervention for college faculties and students in Brazil2021Paiva SC,Nunes FC,Couto BM,Trindade L,Pereira LG,Almeida T,Bridi C,Caldeira L,Veloso CEducation for HealthBackground: Teacher and students' stress has been a challenge in education. An approach to stress reduction is mindfulness training. The Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been used to improve the condition of individuals with various health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine whether MBSR may improve depression, well-being, and perceived stress of Brazilian college faculty and students. Methods: MBSR was performed with college faculty and students from Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UniBH). Participants answered questionnaires (Psychological General Well-Being Index, Perceived Stress Scale, and Beck Depression Index) at the beginning and end of the intervention. A control group of teachers also answered the questionnaires but did not participate in the MBSR intervention. Statistical analyses were performed using paired Student's t-test (P Results: The MBSR intervention positively impacted all conditions measured in the questionnaires in faculty and students who attended the intervention. Faculty and students in the control group had shown conditions being maintained or worsened. Discussion: The MBSR was effective as faculty and students from the experimental group exhibited improvement in general well-being, depression levels, and perceived stress after attending the intervention.Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd.1357-6283http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EFH.EFH_340_17;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3548865710.4103/EFH.EFH_340_17Well‑beingPsychological General Well-Being IndexStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)DepressionBeck Depression IndexNANANANANANA215Students12Mixed-methods cross-sectional designSingle assessmentBrazil
1300NAJournal ArticleSelf-Compassion in University Students: An Integrative Literature Review2021Pereira MD,da Silva JPSciELO PreprintsThe objective of this study was to review the scientific production, in search of gathering empirical evidence about self-compassion in college students. The integrative review included articles published from 2009 to 2021, indexed in PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 183 files were found and, after the screening, eligibility and selection steps, 9 articles were included, following the PRISMA guidelines. The analysis of the results was categorized from two topics: (i) self-compassion-based interventions for academics and (ii) self-compassion as a protective psychological factor for the mental health of higher education students. The results showed that self-compassion is considered an important protective factor for positive psychological functioning and the development of constructs that reflect positive dimensions of mental health and academic performance in college students.SciELO PreprintsNAhttps://preprints.scielo.org/index.php/scielo/preprint/view/2521;http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/SCIELOPREPRINTS.252110.1590/SCIELOPREPRINTS.2521NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1324NOMiscellaneousThe effectiveness of mindfulness based thriving program on level of mindfulness and thriving2021Özcan NA,Şahin SKlinik Psikiyatri DergisiObjective: This experimental research examined the effects of the Mindfulness-Based Thriving Program (MTP) on university students’ mindfulness and thriving levels. Method: The study was conducted with randomly assigned 19 female students attending to a public university in Turkey. The inclusion criteria were to have low scores on Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Thriving Scale in pre-test assessment. Experimental group (n=10) received a 6-session MTP intervention developed by the first researcher while control group (n=9) received no intervention. To determine the immediate and long-term effects of the MTP, all participants completed post-tests two months after the program. Data were analyzed by using two-way ANOVA test. To determine the significant differences between subgroups, the Tukey (HSD) test was performed. Results: Post-test and follow-up results of experimental group for MAAS and Thriving Scale were found to be higher than their pre-test results, while there were no statistically significant changes in results of control group. Results revealed that six-session MTP for university students was significantly effective in increasing mindfulness and thriving levels. Discussion: Research results highlight the potential contribution of eclectic mindfulness practices during adolescence. Although, there are many studies supporting the positive effect of mindfulness-based interventions on students, empirical evidence about MTP’s effect on thriving is very scarce. In this respect, this study is expected to contribute the current literature by examining the MTP’s effect on mindfulness and thriving.ANP Publishing2146-7153http://dx.doi.org/10.5505/KPD.2021.6503710.5505/KPD.2021.65037Mindfulness levelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANANANANANANANA19Students6Experimental researchRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Turkey
1335YESMiscellaneousMindfulness-based mobile app reduces anxiety and increases self-compassion in healthcare students: A randomised controlled trial2021Orosa-Duarte Á,Mediavilla R,Muñoz-Sanjose A,Palao Á,Garde J,López-Herrero V,Bravo-Ortiz MF,Bayón C,Rodríguez-Vega BMedical TeacherObjective: To compare the effect of a mindfulness-based mobile application versus an in-person mindfulness-based training program in terms of reducing anxiety and increasing empathy, self-compassion, and mindfulness in a population of healthcare students. Methods: The authors conducted a single-blind, randomised controlled trial with three parallel groups. Participants were allocated to the mobile app, the in-person mindfulness-based program (IMBP), or a control group. Assessments at baseline and postintervention (8 weeks) included measures of anxiety, empathy, self-compassion, and mindfulness. Results: Of 168 students randomised, 84 were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis (app: n = 31; IMBP: n = 23; control: n = 30). The mobile app group showed a large effect size for reductions in trait anxiety compared with controls (g = 0.85, p = 0.003), and a medium, nonsignificant effect compared with the IMBP group (g = 0.52, p = 0.152). Participants from both interventions experienced a significant increase in self-compassion and mindfulness compared with controls. Levels of empathy remained unchanged for the 3 arms. Conclusions: A mobile app can be as effective as an IMBP in reducing anxiety and increasing self-compassion and mindfulness among healthcare students.Taylor and Francis Ltd.1466-187Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2021.1887835;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3364541610.1080/0142159X.2021.1887835AnxietyState-Trait Anxiety Inventory’s State Anxiety Scale (STAI)EmpathyThe Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE)Self-compassionTheSelf-Compassion Scale (SCS)Mindfulness LevelThe Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)NANANANA168Students8Single-blind, randomised controlled trialRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Spain
1345NOMiscellaneousEffectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Programme on Perceived Stress, Psychopathological Symptomatology and Burnout in Medical Students2021Oró P,Esquerda M,Mas B,Viñas J,Yuguero O,Pifarré JMindfulnessObjectives Medical students display a high prevalence of psychopathological symptomatology, stress and burnout, which may continue in their time as resident and fully qualified doctors. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the effects of a mindfulness-based programme on these variables in an experimental group of medical students who underwent the intervention programme compared to a control group who did not. Methods A quasi-experimental study of two independent groups (experimental and control) with two repeated measures (pre and post) was performed. Eight sessions of 2-h duration each were held over the course of 16 weeks. A total of 143 students participated in the study, 68 in the intervention group and 75 in the control group. A sociodemographic questionnaire was administered along with the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Results Our study revealed a clear improvement compared to the control group in perceived stress and psychopathological symptomatology, in the Global Severity Index, Positive Symptom Total and the primary symptom dimensions of somatization, obsessive compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity and anxiety of the SCL-90-R. The improvement was significant at both intra-and intergroup level. No impact was found on the level of burnout. Conclusions The mindfulness-based programme that was used resulted in an improvement in psychopathological symptomatol-ogy and stress, with no effect observed on BO score. This study can contribute to the design of a training programme to promote effective self-care and stress management strategies for both medical students and doctors.NANAhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01582-5;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01582-5/Published10.1007/s12671-020-01582-5/PublishedStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)BurnoutMaslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS)NANANANANANANANA143Students16Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studySpain
1355YESJournal ArticleEfficacy of online group counseling with mindfulness-based cognitive approach to enhance students’ humility2021Naini R,Wibowo ME,Mulawarman MIslamic Guidance and Counseling JournalCharacter building is an important part of the counseling services in schools. Humility is a character strength as a basic development of others' virtue. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of online group counseling with a mindfulness-based cognitive approach to enhance students' humility. This study is a pretest-posttest control group design with 16 students divided into experimental and control groups. To measure the students' humility, the authors used 32 items of humility scale (α = .901). Furthermore, to measure mindfulness skills using children and adolescence mindfulness measurement (α = .790). Based on the results of the paired t-test data analysis, obtained the pretest-posttest (t = 18,391; p = .56), posttest – follow up (t =-5,769; p = .001), and pretest – follow up (t =-30.549; p = .001). There was a significant change in the humility score which was marked by (p < .05). Comparison analysis between the control group (MD = 12.62; SE = .87; p = .001) was interpreted as a significant increase change in the students' humility. In addition, there is a significant interaction between students' humility in the group as evidenced by (F (2,4) = 56,764, P = .001, Ƞp2 = .73). As the result, there is a significant change in mindfulness group counseling effect on increasing humility and has a large interaction effect.Institut Agama Islam Ma'arif NU (IAIMNU) Metro Lampung2614-1566http://dx.doi.org/10.25217/IGCJ.V4I1.128010.25217/IGCJ.V4I1.1280HumilityHumility scaleMindfulness LevelChildren and adolescence mindfulness measurementNANANANANANANANA16Students5Pretest-posttest control group designPretest–post-test designIndonesia
1365YESJournal ArticleExploring the impact of an open access mindfulness course with online graduate students: A mixed methods explanatory sequential study2021Murphy JOnline Learning JournalAs enrollment in online graduate education increases, retention continues to be problematic for many colleges and universities across the United States. Non-traditional students, who represent the majority of online graduate student enrollment, have unique issues related to persistence considering they often must juggle the demands of graduate school with work and families. The competing demands can lead to increased levels of perceived stress, which can impact academic performance due to increased mind wandering and decreased attention. Mindfulness is a practice that has been shown in the literature to decrease levels of perceived stress and mind wandering, therefore, the integration of mindfulness practice could have a positive effect on student persistence in online graduate education. Therefore, an online open access mindfulness course was created at one large urban university. The purpose of this explanatory sequential study was to explore the impact of teaching mindfulness to online graduate students. Self-report levels of perceived stress and mind wandering were significantly lower after students completed Module One of an open access mindfulness course. Self-reported perceived persistence levels were found to be significantly higher after Module One with students in the first or second quarter of their program, students with little or no mindfulness experience, and students who meditated four or more times a week. Furthermore, students interviewed felt that the course provided excellent foundational information about mindfulness that could be immediately applied, and therefore should be a requirement for all incoming students.The Online Learning Consortium2472-5730http://dx.doi.org/10.24059/OLJ.V25I2.229210.24059/OLJ.V25I2.2292Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)WanderingMind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ).PersistenceCollege Persistence Questionnaire (CPQ)NANANANANANA104Students3Mixed Methods Explanatory Sequential StudyMixed MethodUSA
1375NOMiscellaneousEffects of a Single Physical or Mindfulness Intervention on Mood, Attention, and Executive Functions: Results from two Randomized Controlled Studies in University Classes2021Müller C,Dubiel D,Kremeti E,Lieb M,Streicher E,Oglou NS,Mickel C,Karbach JMindfulnessObjectives: The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of one-session physical or mindfulness training on university students’ mood, attention and executive functions in two separate randomized studies. Methods: Study 1 (physical activity intervention) was implemented in a seminar with 63 and Study 2 (mindfulness intervention) in another seminar with 28 university students. The physical intervention included stretching exercises, balancing tasks, and medium intensity cardiovascular activities. The mindfulness training included yoga exercises, guided attention, and a body scan. In the control conditions, students watched a 15-min fitness or yoga video, respectively. Several mood and attention scales, as well as executive functions were assessed before and after the intervention or control activity. A randomized within-subject cross-over design was applied in both studies. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that participants in both intervention conditions reported mood to be more positive, more awake and calmer after the intervention compared to the control conditions. These effects were medium to large (Study 1: eta2 =.08-.30, Study 2: eta2 =.15-.30). Attention scores improved more relative to the control condition after the physical intervention (medium effect size, eta2 =.11). Executive function scores improved more relative to the control condition after the mindfulness intervention (medium effect size, eta2 =.17). Conclusions: These results indicate that a short bout (15-min) of physical or mindfulness activity in a university learning setting positively affected dimensions of mood and cognition known to support academic learning.Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01601-z;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01601-Z/TABLES/210.1007/S12671-021-01601-Z/TABLES/2MoodMultidimensional Mood State Questionnaire(Mehrdimensionaler Befindlichkeitsfragebogen, MDBF;Steyer et al.1994).AttentionFrankfurt Attention Inventory-2CognitionThe Trail Making Test BExecutive FunctionsThe Trail Making Test BNANANANA28Students1Two separate randomized studiesRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
1385NOJournal ArticleElectrophysiological effects of mindfulness meditation in a concentration test2021Morais P,Quaresma C,Vigário R,Quintão CMedical and Biological Engineering and ComputingIn this paper, we evaluate the effects of mindfulness meditation training in electrophysiological signals, recorded during a concentration task. Longitudinal experiments have been limited to the analysis of psychological scores through depression, anxiety, and stress state (DASS) surveys. Here, we present a longitudinal study, confronting DASS survey data with electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG), and electrodermal activity (EDA) signals. Twenty-five university student volunteers (mean age = 26, SD = 7, 9 male) attended a 25-h mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course, over a period of 8 weeks. There were four evaluation periods: pre/peri/post-course and a fourth follow-up, after 2 months. All three recorded biosignals presented congruent results, in line with the expected benefits of regular meditation practice. In average, EDA activity decreased throughout the course, −64.5%, whereas the mean heart rate displayed a small reduction, −5.8%, possibly as a result of an increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity. Prefrontal (AF3) cortical alpha activity, often associated with calm conditions, saw a very significant increase, 148.1%. Also, the number of stressed and anxious subjects showed a significant decrease, −92.9% and −85.7%, respectively. Easy to practice and within everyone’s reach, this mindfulness meditation can be used proactively to prevent or enhance better quality of life. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH1741-0444http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S11517-021-02332-Y;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3372859510.1007/S11517-021-02332-YDepression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Quality of lifeElectroencephalography (EEG)NANANANANANANANA25Students8Longitudinal studyQuasi-experimental studyPortugal
1395NOJournal ArticleLos efectos de un programa de mindfulness en estudiantes universitarios2021Moix J,Cladellas M,Gayete S,Guarch M,Heredia I,Parpal G,Toledo A,Torrent D,Trujillo A,Moix J,Cladellas M,Gayete S,Guarch M,Heredia I,Parpal G,Toledo A,Torrent D,Trujillo AClínica y SaludThe aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a brief and flexible mindfulness program in reducing anxiety and increasing mindful awareness in psychology university students. The sample consisted of 72 psychology students who participated in four different studies. The first was a quasi-experimental study and the remaining three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT). A mindfulness program was applied to intervention groups. Anxiety (STAI-T) and mindful awareness (FFMQ) were assessed before and immediately after the intervention. Anxiety was reduced and mindful awareness increased in the intervention groups (p <.05). In the three RCTs the magnitude of change (between groups) showed a moderate increase in mindful awareness in one study (d = 0.68) and a large increase in the remaining two (d = 1.32, 1.01), and as regards anxiety, large changes were observed in the three studies (d = 0.80, 1.04, 0.81). As a conclusion, this mindfulness program proved to be effective in reducing anxiety and increasing mindful awareness.Colegio Oficial de la Psicología de Madrid1130-5274http://dx.doi.org/10.5093/CLYSA2020A2410.5093/CLYSA2020A24AnxietyState-Trait Anxiety Inventory’s State Anxiety Scale (STAI)Awareness Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANANANANANA72Students3Quasi-experimental study and the remaining three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT).Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Spain
1405YESMiscellaneousEvaluation of a mindfulness-based mobile application with college students: A pilot study2021Moffitt-Carney KM,Duncan ABJournal of American College HealthObjective: This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of The Mindfulness App with college students and the utility of daily text-message reminders for increasing adherence. Participants: Students from a mid-sized Midwestern University (N = 59) during the spring and fall of 2016. Methods: Using a pretest–posttest design, a group of students used The Mindfulness App for 5 weeks. All students were sent text-message reminders to submit daily practice time and completed a series of online measures. Results: Participants consistently used the application as intended, and reported positive attitudes toward the text-message reminders and the quality of the application. Conclusions:The Mindfulness App is a feasible, well-accepted tool for delivering mindfulness interventions to college students.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1661420;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3151347610.1080/07448481.2019.1661420NANANANANANANANANANANANA59Students5Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designUSA
1416YESMiscellaneousEvaluation of a mindfulness-based mobile application with college students: A pilot study2021Modrego-Alarcón M,López-del-Hoyo Y,García-Campayo J,Pérez-Aranda A,Navarro-Gil M,Beltrán-Ruiz M,Morillo H,Delgado-Suarez I,Oliván-Arévalo R,Montero-Marin JBehaviour Research and TherapyObjectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a mindfulness-based programme (MBP) for reducing stress in university students and its action mechanisms and to explore the capacity of virtual reality (VR) exposure to enhance adherence to the intervention. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) involved assessment time points of baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 280 students from two Spanish universities were randomly assigned to ‘MBP’, ‘MBP + VR’, or ‘Relaxation’ (active controls). Perceived stress posttreatment was the primary outcome; wellbeing and academic functional outcomes were assessed as well. Multilevel mixed-effects models were performed to estimate the efficacy of the programme. Results: Both ‘MBP’ (B = −2.77, d = −0.72, p = .006) and ‘MBP + VR’ (B = −2.44, d = −0.59, p = .014) were superior to ‘Relaxation’ in improving stress, as well as most of the secondary outcomes, with medium-to-large effects posttreatment and at follow-up. The long-term effects of MBPs on stress were mediated by mindfulness and self-compassion in parallel. Treatment adherence was improved in the ‘MBP + VR’ group, with higher retention rates and session attendance (p < .001). Conclusions: This RCT supports the efficacy of an MBP compared to relaxation for reducing stress in university students through mindfulness and self-compassion as mechanisms of change. VR exposure may enhance treatment adherence. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03771300.Pergamon0005-7967http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.BRAT.2021.103866;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3395750610.1016/J.BRAT.2021.103866Perceived stressNASelf-compassionNAMindfulness LevelNANANANANANANA280Students24Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Spain
1424NOJournal ArticleMindfulness Improves Otolaryngology Residents’ Performance in a Simulated Bad-News Consultation: A Pilot Study2021Mengin AC,Kayser C,Tuzin N,Perruisseau-Carrier J,Charpiot A,Berna F,Lilot M,Vidailhet PJournal of Surgical EducationIntroduction: Delivering bad news is a stressful moment for both patient and clinician. As poor bad-news consultation quality may lead to misunderstandings, lack of treatment adherence, acute or even post-traumatic stress in patients, training interventions to improve communication skills and stress-management are necessary. Mindfulness is a recognised stress-management strategy that has shown its efficacy in reducing stress in both health professionals and students. We then supposed that a short mindfulness meditation session performed just before a simulated breaking bad-news consultation to patients with laryngeal cancer may help ear, nose and throat (ENT) residents to master their stress and improve their management of this consultation. This study aims at showing how a short mindfulness meditation performed before a simulated bad-news consultation may improve performance in its realisation by ENT residents. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 53 ENT residents, randomised in 2 groups. The first group completed a 5-minute mindfulness session while the other group listened to a control track. Thereafter, every resident completed an 8-minute simulated bad-news consultation with a standardised patient. Two blinded expert assessors evaluated their performance on a 25-point grid (BNC-OSAS). Residents self-assessed their stress before and after the intervention and simulated patients rated their perception of physician's empathy. Results: The performance was significantly better in the mindfulness group than in the control group (m = 19.8, sd = 3.2 and m = 17.4, sd = 3.7 respectively, F(1,45)=5.27, p = 0.026, d = 0.67), especially in the communication and knowledge subdomains. There was no significant difference in perceived stress between the 2 groups. Empathy perceived by simulated patients was positively correlated to residents’ performance. Conclusion: A short mindfulness meditation is effective for improving ENT residents’ performance in a simulated bad-news consultation. These results encourage further assessments of this method with objective measures of physiological stress. More research is required concerning the feasibility and efficacy of mindfulness before daily clinical activities such as stressing bad-news consultation.Elsevier1931-7204http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.JSURG.2020.11.009;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3322125210.1016/J.JSURG.2020.11.009PerformanceBNC-OSASNANANANANANANANANANA53Students1Pilot StudyPilot studyUSA
1435NOJournal ArticleNursing Student's Experiences of Meditation on Twin Hearts During Eight Weeks Practice: A Qualitative Content Analysis2021Meena BM,Manasa B,Vijayakumar V,Salagame KK,Jois SNSAGE Open NursingBackground: Meditation on Twin Hearts (MTH) involves blessing the earth to alleviate the sufferings, and praying for the well-being of the entire society using heart and crown chakra. This meditation is characterized by mechanisms of loving-kindness , self-healing imagery, and open awareness. Purpose: This study aims to identify the experiences and perceived benefits associated with practicing MTH by nursing students. Method: Qualitative method using content analysis was used to study meditation experiences. After obtaining the informed consent, 22 nursing students were introduced to MTH. Experiences and feedback from meditation sessions were reported each day during their 8 week practice. Nursing students also answered seven open-ended questions on the last day of the meditation session. Findings: The verbatim descriptions of experiences reported by nursing students were abstracted to elements (17), properties (6), and categories (2). Identified properties are positive experiences, experiences of awareness, energy experiences, tangible outcomes, physiological reactions, and feedback on the study program. Conclusion: The experiences narrated by nursing students include positive affective experiences, health benefits, resolution of problem, awareness and energy experiences, and prosocial tendencies. These findings indicate that MTH would enhance the well-being of the nursing students and could be used as a self-care measure.NANAhttps://us.sagepub.com/en-;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2377960821105211810.1177/23779608211052118Well‑beingNAResolution of problemsNAAwarenessNAProsocial tendenciesNAEnergy experiencesNANANA22Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyIndia
1445NOJournal ArticleThe mental health and wellbeing of university students: Acceptability, effectiveness and mechanisms of a mindfulness-based course2021Medlicott E,Phillips A,Crane C,Hinze V,Taylor L,Tickell A,Montero-Marin J,Kuyken WInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthMental health problems are relatively common during university and adversely affect academic outcomes. Evidence suggests that mindfulness can support the mental health and wellbeing of university students. We explored the acceptability and effectiveness of an 8-week instructor-led mindfulness-based course (“Mindfulness: Finding Peace in a Frantic World”; Williams and Penman, 2011) on improving wellbeing and mental health (self-reported distress), orientation and motivation towards academic goals, and the mechanisms driving these changes. Eighty-six undergraduate and post-graduate students (>18 years) participated. Students engaged well with the course, with 36 (48.0%) completing the whole programme, 52 (69.3%) attending 7 out of 8 sessions, and 71 (94.7%) completing at least half. Significant improvements in wellbeing and mental health were found post-intervention and at 6-week follow-up. Improvements in wellbeing were mediated by mindfulness, self-compassion, and resilience. Improvements in mental health were mediated by improvements in mindfulness and resilience but not self-compassion. Significant improvements in students’ orientation to their academic goal, measured by “commitment” to, “likelihood” of achieving, and feeling more equipped with the “skills and resources” needed, were found at post-intervention and at 6-week follow-up. Whilst exploratory, the results suggest that this mindfulness intervention is acceptable and effective for university students and can support academic study.MDPI1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH18116023;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3420511410.3390/IJERPH18116023Well‑beingWarwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being ScaleMental HealthThe Clinical Outcomes Routine Evaluation-10 (CORE-10) [Mindfulness LevelFive Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF)Self-compassionSelf-Compassion Scale (SCS-SF)Academic GoalsThe ‘Measure to elicit positive future goals and plans’ (MEPGAP)NANA86Students8Pre-post-test intervention designPretest–post-test designUnited Kingdom
1454YESJournal ArticleMindfulness-based interventions for undergraduate nursing students in a university setting: A narrative review2021McVeigh C,Ace L,Ski CF,Carswell C,Burton S,Rej S,Noble HHealthcare (Switzerland)(1) Introduction: Undergraduate (UG) nursing students are vulnerable to stress throughout their education, known to result in burnout, with high attrition rates of up to 33%. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for the management of anxiety, depression and wellbeing, thereby reducing stress in healthcare provider populations. The aim of this narrative review was to synthesize and provide a critical overview of the current evidence in relation to mindfulness-based interventions for UG nursing students in a university setting. (2) Methods: A review of the literature was conducted in March 2020 and updated in May 2021, utilising the databases CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO. (3) Results: Fifteen studies were included in the review, with three common themes identified: (i) the positive impact of mindfulness on holistic wellbeing, (ii) mindfulness-based techniques as a positive coping mechanism within academic and clinical practice, and (iii) approaches to the delivery of mindfulness-based interventions. (4) Conclusions: Mindfulness-based interventions are effective strategies for the management of stress, development of self-awareness and enhanced academic and clinical performance in undergraduate nursing students. No ideal approach to delivery or duration of these interventions was evident from the literature. Best practice in relation to delivery of mindfulness-based interventions for nursing students is recommended for future studies.MDPI2227-9032http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare911149310.3390/healthcare9111493NANANANANANANANANANANANANAStudentsNAOnline surveyReviewUnited Kingdom
1465YESJournal ArticleSupporting Mindfulness With Technology in Students With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities2021McMahon AK,Cox AE,Miller DEJournal of Special Education TechnologyYoung adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at an increased risk of developing mental health disorders. Mindfulness may be one strategy that can help support the mental health needs of this particular population; however, those with (IDDs) may need additional support in cultivating the practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of a wearable device designed to provide neurofeedback to help promote state mindfulness in young adults with (IDDs). Additionally, attention and affect mechanisms were examined, as well as the social validity of using the wearable device. Using an A-B-A-B single-subject study design, five (age range = 18–25) students completed 20 sessions that consisted of listening and not listening to neurofeedback. Results provide some support for the positive effect of neurofeedback on state mindfulness, paying attention to the breath, and positive affect. All five students reported acceptability of using the device.SAGE Publications Inc.2381-3121http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016264342092419110.1177/0162643420924191Mental healthNANANANANANANANANANANA5Students3A-B-A-B single-subject study designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
1475YESMiscellaneousThe Effect of Mindfulness and Compassion Meditation on State Empathy and Emotion2021Martin-Allan J,Leeson P,Lovegrove WMindfulnessResearch suggests meditation may increase empathy and emotional engagement. Whilst this may be beneficial in professions where empathy results in greater effectiveness (e.g. psychotherapy), emotional engagement may also produce emotional burnout. This study aims to determine whether mindfulness and/or compassion meditation can prime empathy prior to connecting with another’s emotions, and facilitate emotional stability afterwards. University students (N = 156) listened to recordings of compassion meditation, mindfulness meditation or a control, then watched videos depicting sadness, happiness or anxiety, then listened to compassion, mindfulness or control recordings again. This produced five groups: Compassion-compassion (i.e. compassion meditation before and after videos), mindfulness-mindfulness, mindfulness-compassion, compassion-mindfulness and a control. State emotions and empathy were assessed throughout. Compassion and mindfulness meditation resulted in greater empathy than the control (p = .03). Prior to watching videos, mindfulness meditation produced greater sadness and anxiety, and compassion meditation produced greater sadness and happiness (p = .001). After watching videos, happiness was greater in the mindfulness-mindfulness and compassion-compassion condition (p = .03). Both types of meditation resulted in greater self-reported distressing emotions prior to videos (and happiness in compassion condition), and empathy during presentation compared to the control. Afterwards, there was an increase in positive emotions in the compassion-compassion and mindfulness-mindfulness conditions. This indicates that meditation may allow for individuals to process emotional content in a way that is conducive to wellbeing. Whilst compassion meditation is often combined with mindfulness, these results suggest using a consistent approach of either mindfulness or compassion is most beneficial to wellbeing.Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01639-z;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01639-Z10.1007/S12671-021-01639-ZWell‑beingNAEmpathyThe State Empathy Scale (SES)Positive EmotionsThe Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ)Mindfulness LevelFFMQ The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS)CompassionThe Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale (SBCS)NANA156Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyAustralia
1485NOJournal ArticleEvaluation of mental health effects of a mindfulness workshop with health professions students2021Martin SD,Alexander GK,Fisher KP,Jenschke M,Jevas SAJournal of Allied HealthOur interprofessional team examined the mental health effects of a pilot mindfulness meditation workshop for college students (n = 39) from 4 health professions. A mixedmethods survey examined students' self-compassion (short form; SCS-sf), perceived stress (PSS-10), and self-reported mindfulness behaviors pre-workshop and at 2 months. The survey captured attitudes, beliefs, and intentions to continue mindfulness practices over time and perceived barriers to mindfulness practice. Participants (69%; '/39) indicated significantly improved SCS-sf (p=0.016) and significantly reduced PSS (p=0.009) at 2 months post-workshop. Students reported improved mental health after 2 months, but the small sample size limits generalizability of findings. Interprofessional education promoting mindfulness skills may help prevent burnout and empathy fatigue for health professionals entering the workplace.Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions1945-404Xhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34495037NANANANANANANANANANANANANA39Students8Mixed methods surveyMixed MethodUSA
1495YESJournal ArticleLoving-Kindness Colouring and Loving-Kindness Meditation: Exploring the Effectiveness of Non-Meditative and Meditative Practices on State Mindfulness and Anxiety2021Mantzios M,Tariq A,Altaf M,Giannou KJournal of Creativity in Mental HealthLoving-kindness meditation has been recognized as a valuable form of meditation practice and features in most mindfulness programs. The present research explored the potential of an alternative non...Routledge1540-1391https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15401383.2021.1884159;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2021.188415910.1080/15401383.2021.1884159Mindfulness levelState mindfulness scaleAnxietyState anxiety inventory scaleSelf-compassionState self-compassion scaleNANANANANANA180Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUnited Kingdom
1505NOJournal ArticleStarting from the Same Spot: Exploring Mindfulness Meditation and Student Transitions in the Introductory Health Promotion Classroom2021MacQuarrie M,Blinn N,MacLellan S,Flynn M,Meisner J,Owen P,Spencer BCanadian Journal of EducationThe purpose of this research was to explore student perceptions of mindfulness meditation (MM) in an introductory health promotion course, and how the use of MM during class might relate to the transitions experienced by students. Qualitative data collection took place through an online survey and in-person interviews. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four key themes were identified from this research. First, that MM facilitates a sense of peace and calm; second, that MM encourages students to focus; third, MM helps promote student mental health; and finally, MM positively changes the classroom environment. Challenges and recommendations were also described.Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE)0380-2361http://dx.doi.org/10.53967/cje-rce.v44i1.430310.53967/cje-rce.v44i1.4303Sense of Peace and CalmNAFocusNAMental healthNAPositively Changes Classroom EnvironmentNANANANANA40Students1Post-structural caulitativeQualitative StudyCanada
1516NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-Based College: A Stage 1 Randomized Controlled Trial for University Student Well-Being2021Loucks EB,Nardi WR,Gutman R,Saadeh FB,Li Y,Vago DR,Fiske LB,Spas JJ,Harrison APsychosomatic MedicineObjective To evaluate effects of a mindfulness-based program, adapted to the young adult life course stage (age, 18-29 years), named Mindfulness-Based College (MB-College). The primary outcome was a young adult health summary score, composed of key health risk factors: body mass index, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, stress, loneliness, and sleep duration. Secondary outcomes were hypothesized self-regulation mechanisms, including attention control, interoceptive awareness, and emotion regulation. Methods This was a stage 1 randomized controlled trial of the 9-week MB-College program (n = 47) versus enhanced usual care control (n = 49) including students from three universities. Assessments were at baseline, during the beginning of the college term when stress is typically lower, and at MB-College completion (3-month follow-up), when term-related stress is typically higher. Intention-to-treat, linear regression analyses estimated the marginal effects of MB-College versus control on the outcomes. Results MB-College participants (mean age = 20 years, 68% female, 37% racial minorities) demonstrated improved health summary scores at follow-up compared with control participants whose health summary scores worsened (marginal effect for MB-College versus control = 0.23; p =.004). Effects on loneliness were pronounced (marginal effect = -3.11 for the Revised University of Los Angeles Loneliness Scale score; p =.03). Secondary analyses showed significant impacts of MB-College on hypothesized self-regulation mechanisms (e.g., Sustained Attention to Response Task correct no-go percent, p =.0008; Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, p <.0001; Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale, p =.03). Conclusions Findings of this early stage clinical trial suggest that MB-College may foster well-being in young adults. Trial Registration: NCT03124446Lippincott Williams and Wilkins1534-7796https://journals.lww.com/psychosomaticmedicine/Fulltext/2021/07000/Mindfulness_Based_College__A_Stage_1_Randomized.12.aspx;http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000860;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3294758110.1097/PSY.0000000000000860DepressionCESD-R (32)AnxietyBeck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)DistressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANA96Students9Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
1525NOJournal ArticleA mindfulness-based promotive coping program improves well-being in college undergraduates2021Long R,Halvorson M,Lengua LJAnxiety, Stress and CopingBackground and objectives: An increasing number of college students in the U.S. report elevations in stress and anxiety. One approach to addressing this need is to offer skills training programs. Design: This study used a stepped-wedge design to test the effects of a mindfulness-based coping-enhancement program on college students’ stress-management, emotion regulation, coping, and well-being. The 6-week program includes didactics and practices for mindfulness, coping with challenging situations, regulating emotions, and compassion for oneself and others. Methods: Participants (N = 208) were predominantly first-year college students living in residence halls on campus, where the program was delivered. Results: Students who received the program were compared to those who had not yet received the program and reported improved mindfulness, executive control, active coping, self-compassion, social connectedness, resilience, and flourishing. The majority of these changes were maintained at a three-month follow-up. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the program shows promise for supporting well-being in college students.Routledge1477-2205http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2021.1895986;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3371975710.1080/10615806.2021.1895986CopingNAFlourishingNAEmotional regulationNAwell-beingNASocial connectednessNAresilienceNA208Students6Stepped-wedge designRandomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
1535NOJournal ArticleEffects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Health and Social Care Education: a Cohort-Controlled Study2021Lo HH,Ngai S,Yam KMindfulnessObjectives: Mindfulness practice has been recommended as part of health and social care education and training because of its potential benefits in fostering clinical skills and attitudes, increasing self-care, and reducing the effect of stress in education and occupation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on stress, physical distress, job burnout, work engagement, and empathy for health and social care education. Methods: Students (N = 124) from postgraduate programs in social work, counseling, and family therapy were recruited. Sixty-four students participated in an 8-week MBSR program as an elective course. Sixty students were recruited from other elective courses in the same cohort as control group participants. All participants completed self-report assessments. Results: The results suggested that MBSR was associated with significant improvements in perceived efficacy and vigor and significant reductions in physical distress, total job burnout, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization of clients compared with the control group. Conclusions: This study contributes to the growing body of literature highlighting the potential use of mindfulness practice to improve students’ personal well-being and professional growth in health and social care education. Mindfulness practice should be further promoted in health and social care education and training.Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01663-z;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01663-Z/TABLES/210.1007/S12671-021-01663-Z/TABLES/2Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)BurnoutMaslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS)Work EngagementUtrecht Work Engagement ScalePhysical DistressThe physical distress subscale of the Body-Mind-Spirit Well-Being InventoryEmpathyThe empathy subscale of the Interpersonal Reac-tivity IndexNANA124Students8Cohort‑Controlled StudyQuasi-experimental studyChina
1546NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-based intervention to reduce multiple health risk behaviors in Chinese undergraduates:a randomized controlled trial2021Liu X,Xiao R,Tang F,Wu SCurrent Psychology 2021 41:12College students are most susceptible to highest-risk of health risk behaviors (HRBs) in China. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have shown significant benefit in specific HRB; however, evidence of its effectiveness in multiple HRBs in college students is limited. The current study aimed to address the effectiveness of the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on trait mindfulness and multiple HRBs among general Chinese undergraduates, and the relationship between trait mindfulness and HRBs. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in a Chinese university from April to June 2016. A total of 164 enrolled participants were randomized to no intervention (n = 82), or MBCT (n = 82). The outcomes were measured by the Adolescent Health Related Risky Behavior Inventory (AHRBI) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Data were analyzed with intent-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analysis.The results yielded significant group by pre-post interaction terms for the trait mindfulness facets (P < 0.01) and the HRBs (P < 0.05), the MBCT group changed more than the control group. The five types of HRB measures had significant inverse correlation with the five facets of the trait mindfulness measures (r = −0.50 −0.16, P < 0.05). The structural model of the intervention effect of MBCT on HRBs mediated by trait mindfulness was well-fitted (P < 0.01).The findings suggests that MBI has beneficial effects in both improving trait mindfulness and reducing multiple HRBs, and the improvement of trait mindfulness can effectively decreases the risks of HRBs.Springer1936-4733https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-021-01372-9;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-021-01372-910.1007/S12144-021-01372-9Health risk behaviors (HRBs)The Adolescent Health Related Risky Behavior Inventory(AHRBI)NANANANANANANANANANA164Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)China
1555NOJournal ArticleMindfulness meditation improves musical aesthetic emotion processing in young adults2021Liu X,Shi H,Liu Y,Yuan H,Zheng MInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthThis study explored the behavioral and neural correlates of mindfulness meditation improvement in musical aesthetic emotion processing (MAEP) in young adults, using the revised across‐modal priming paradigm. Sixty‐two participants were selected from 652 college students who assessed their mindfulness traits using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). According to the 27% ratio of the high and low total scores, participants were divided into two subgroups: high trait group (n =31) and low trait group (n =31). Participants underwent facial recognition and emotional arousal tasks while listening to music, and simultaneously recorded event‐related potentials (ERPs). The N400, P3, and late positive component (LPC) were investigated. The behavioral results showed that mindfulness meditation improved executive control abilities in emotional face processing and effectively regulated the emotional arousal of repeated listening to familiar music among young adults. These improvements were associated with positive changes in key neural signatures of facial recognition (smaller P3 and larger LPC effects) and emotional arousal (smaller N400 and larger LPC effects). Our results show that P3, N400, and LPC are important neural markers for the improvement of executive control and regulating emotional arousal in musical aesthetic emotion processing, providing new evidence for exploring attention training and emotional processing. We revised the affecting priming paradigm and E‐prime 3.0 procedure to fulfill the simultaneous measurement of music listening and experimental tasks and provide a new experimental paradigm to simultaneously detect the behavioral and neural correlates of mindfulnessbased musical aesthetic processing.MDPI1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH182413045;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3494865110.3390/IJERPH182413045Musical aesthetic processingThe Positive and Negative Affect ScheduleNANANANANANANANANANA62Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyChina
1564YESJournal ArticleFeasibility of using a biofeedback device in mindfulness training - a pilot randomized controlled trial2021Lin B,Prickett C,Woltering SPilot and Feasibility StudiesBackground: Stress can negatively impact an individual’s health and well-being and high levels of stress are noted to exist among college students today. While traditional treatment methods are plagued with stigma and transfer problems, newly developed wearable biofeedback devices may offer unexplored possibilities. Although these products are becoming commonplace and inexpensive, scientific evidence of the effectiveness of these products is scarce and their feasibility within research contexts are relatively unexplored. Conversely, companies are not required, and possibly reluctant, to release information on the efficacy of these products against their claims. Thus, in the present pilot, we assess the feasibility of using a real-time respiratory-based biofeedback device in preparation for a larger study. Our main aims were to assess device-adherence and collaboration with the company that develops and sells the device. Method: Data were collected from 39 college students who self-identified as experiencing chronic stress at a Southwestern university in the USA. Students were randomized into either a mindfulness-only control group without a biofeedback device (n = 21), or an experimental group with biofeedback device (n = 18). Both groups received mindfulness meditation training. Pre-test and post-test procedures were conducted 2 weeks apart. Further, both participant compliance and company compliance were assessed and collaboration with the company was evaluated. Results: Participant device-adherence as well as the company’s collaboration necessary for a full-scale study was determined to be low. This may also have affected our results which showed a strong main effect for time for all outcome variables, suggesting all groups showed improvement in their levels of stress after the intervention period. No group by time effects were identified, however, indicating no added benefit of the biofeedback device. Conclusions: Our findings suggest feasibility of future studies requires full collaboration and detailed and agreed upon data sharing procedures with the biofeedback company. The particular device under investigation added no value to the intervention outcomes and it was not feasible to continue a larger-scale study. Further, as the technology sector is innovating faster than it can validate products, we urge for open science collaborations between public and private sectors to properly develop evidence-based regulations that can withstand technological innovation while maintaining product quality, safety, and effectiveness. Trial registration: NCT02837016. Registered 19 July 2016.BioMed Central Ltd2055-5784http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S40814-021-00807-110.1186/S40814-021-00807-1Stress reliefNANANANANANANANANANANA39Students2Pilot randomized controlled trialPilot studyUSA
1575YESJournal ArticleExperiences with and Perception of a Web-Based Mindfulness, Nutrition, and Fitness Platform Reported by First-Year University Students: A Qualitative Study2021Lieffers JR,Quintanilha M,Trottier CF,Johnson ST,Mota JF,Prado CMJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and DieteticsBackground: My Viva Plan (MVP) (https://www.myvivainc.com/) is a web-based application developed by a dietitian that aims to support healthy living by providing resources and self-monitoring tools to help promote a healthy diet, healthy mind, and physical fitness. First-year university students have the potential to benefit because poor dietary choices, limited physical activity, and high stress are prevalent in this population. In addition, they are also active technology users. Objective: This study aims to understand experiences and perception of MVP by first-year university students using this tool as part of a 12-week randomized controlled trial. Design: One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted following a 12-week intervention involving use of MVP. Participants/setting: First-year university students from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (n = 32). Intervention: Participants were instructed to use MVP as much as possible for 12 weeks in either the fall/2018 or winter/2019 semesters. Qualitative data analysis: Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed abductively using content analysis. Results: Participants reported varied use of MVP across the 12-week period. Data were categorized using the HealthChange Methodology (Behaviors, Emotions, 37 Situations, Thinking) framework. Participants provided various examples of emotions (eg, motivation, stress), situations (eg, time, living arrangements, finances), and thinking (eg, self-awareness, level of satisfaction with MVP, and how MVP was or could be better tailored for students) that acted as either facilitators or barriers to MVP use and explained their behaviors associated with this tool. Conclusions: Overall, participant behaviors regarding MVP varied and were influenced by several factors, including their emotions, situations, and thinking. The Behaviors, Emotions, Situations, Thinking framework may be helpful for dietitians to identify barriers and facilitators affecting their client's use of ehealth tools for lifestyle behavior change. This information can be used to optimize client support when using these tools.Elsevier B.V.2212-2672http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2021.04.019;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3411945810.1016/j.jand.2021.04.019NANANANANANANANANANANANA32Students12Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
1586NOJournal ArticleEfficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction on fear of emotions and related cognitive behavioral processes in Chinese University students: A randomized controlled trial2021Li J,Qin XPsychology in the SchoolsFear of losing control over one's emotions has gained increased research interest. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been found to improve emotional disturbance in clinical and nonclinical samples. However, no studies have concurrently examined the direct effects of MBSR on reduced fear of emotions among university students in Chinese culture, as well as its indirect effects on reduced fear of emotions via improvements in the cognitive-behavioral processes. A total of 106 college students were randomly assigned to MBSR or to a control group. Assignment to the MBSR intervention led to increases in mindfulness and decentering, and decreases in rumination, emotion regulation difficulties, Affective Control Scale (ACS)-anger, ACS-depression, ACS-anxiety, ACS-positive emotion and total ACS score, as compared to the control group. The reduction of fear of positive emotion was less than that in fear of anger, depression and anxiety. MBSR was effective to reduce the fear of emotions in college students. Moreover, college students in Chinese culture tended to have a more moderate experience of positive emotions. Attention (mindfulness) and thought (decentering and rumination) may be possible cognitive mechanisms for explaining how MBSR may reduce fear of emotions in college students. Our findings provide important information that can be applied to the design of future studies or mental health resources for reducing fear of emotions in university programs.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1520-6807http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/PITS.2257810.1002/PITS.22578Fear of emotionsThe Adolescent Health Related Risky Behavior Inventory(AHRBI)Mindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANANANANANA164Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)China
1590NAJournal ArticleAn experimental study of mindfulness and acceptance-based skills for internalized ageism in older adults and college students2021Lester EG,Murrell ARAging & Mental HealthOlder adults (OA; 65+) can become cognitively fused with negative attitudes and stereotypes. Given the verbal nature of ageist stereotypes, mindfulness and acceptance-based practices (MABPs) may he...Routledge1364-6915https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13607863.2021.1950613;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2021.1950613;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3428143010.1080/13607863.2021.1950613NANANANANANANANANANANANA60StudentsTopicNA NA
1605NOJournal ArticleImpact of a Yin Yoga and meditation intervention on pharmacy faculty and student well-being2021Lemay V,Hoolahan J,Buchanan AJournal of the American Pharmacists AssociationBackground: Student pharmacists and faculty exhibit high levels of stress, independent of the current coronavirus 2019 pandemic, and their path toward wellness, including a reduction in stress and anxiety, is of the utmost importance. Yoga and meditation are proven interventions to reduce stress and anxiety and increase wellness. Yin yoga is an adaptable, quiet practice ideal for those lacking previous yoga experience, flexibility, and time. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a 6-week yin yoga and meditation intervention on College of Pharmacy faculty and students’ stress perception, anxiety levels, and mindfulness skills. Methods: Faculty and students participated in a 6-week pilot program comprising a once-weekly yin yoga class followed by guided meditation. Yin yoga was selected for its quiet meditative style. Participants completed a pre- and postquestionnaire at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months to evaluate potential changes in perceived stress scores, anxiety scores, and mindfulness skills. The questionnaire was composed of 3 self-reporting tools: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Perceived Stress Scale, and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Results: Twenty participants, 12 students and 8 faculty (ages 18-66 years), completed the study. Anxiety and stress scores decreased, and mindfulness increased at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months, with all changes reaching statistical significance. No participants reported being in the “high” category of anxiety after intervention using BAI categorical data, although this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Faculty and students demonstrated a reduction in stress and anxiety levels and an increase in mindfulness after a 6-week yin yoga and meditation program. Outcomes suggest that inclusion of an adaptable, meditative practice, which may easily be replicated at home, for as little as once per week for 6 weeks may reduce stress and anxiety and increase mindfulness long term. Creating a culture of wellness should be a priority for all Colleges of Pharmacy.Elsevier B.V.1544-3450http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.05.008;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3408314810.1016/j.japh.2021.05.008AnxietyBeck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Mindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANANANA20Students and faculty6Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designUSA
1616NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-based intervention helps preclinical medical students to contain stress, maintain mindfulness and improve academic success2021Lampe LC,Müller-Hilke BBMC medical educationBACKGROUND: Stress among students is on the rise during early medical school and has been implicated in poor academic performance. Several methods are being discussed to efficiently reduce stress, among them mindfulness-based interventions. We therefore set out to assess how stress, mindfulness, and academic performance are connected and if an intervention on mindfulness based stress reduction could alleviate stress among medical students and improve their academic achievements. METHODS: A non-randomized controlled trial including 143 medical students in their preclinical years was performed in 2019. The students completed two surveys - one in the first, the other in the third term - recording perceived stress and mindfulness via validated scales (PSS-10 and MAAS). In between both, 41 students participated in a voluntary mindfulness-based intervention including six two-hours courses. 86 students served as controls. Scholarly success was assessed via the scores achieved in six exams written during the observation period. RESULTS: Stress was inversely related with mindfulness and with the results of the most challenging exam. The intervention on mindfulness based stress reduction helped to contain stress and maintain mindfulness during the observation period and this effect lasted for at least six months beyond completion of the intervention. In contrast, beneficial effects on scholarly success were transient and only detectable at completion of the intervention. CONCLUSION: Our observation of short- and intermediate term effects resulting from six individual interventions on mindfulness based stress reduction is encouraging and calls for alternative strategies to induce long-lasting impacts.NLM (Medline)1472-6920http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S12909-021-02578-Y;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3366347810.1186/S12909-021-02578-YStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Mindfulness LevelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Improve academic successNANANANANANANA143Students6non-randomized controlledQuasi-experimental studyGermany
1626YESJournal ArticleThe effects of app-based mindfulness practice on the well-being of university students and staff2021Lahtinen O,Aaltonen J,Kaakinen J,Franklin L,Hyönä JCurrent PsychologyMental health problems like anxiety, depression, and stress have been increasing in many countries and the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated their toll. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to provide evidence-based treatments for anxiety and depression, and accumulating evidence is emerging in support of using mindfulness apps yielding small-to-moderate treatment effects. The study was a 4-week randomized controlled trial with 561 university students and staff as participants, divided into a treatment group (mindfulness app) and an active control group (psychoeducational online content). Depression, anxiety, and stress were evaluated as primary study outcomes. Saliva cortisol samples were also collected from a subgroup of the treatment arm (n = 29). Using the mindfulness app for four weeks resulted in small reductions in stress (d =.16), and depression (d =.16). Attrition was 28.0%. Subjects who practiced more did not experience additional improvement in wellbeing. Mindfulness apps offer modest but clear benefits to users in terms of improved mental health. They present a promising supplement to traditional mental health services.Springer1936-4733http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-021-01762-Z;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3396756510.1007/S12144-021-01762-ZPerceived StressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)DepressionThe Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21; Beck et al.,1988)Mindfulness LevelAbbreviated (24 items) version (FFMQ-SF; Bohlmeijer et al.,2011)AnxietyThe Generalized AnxietyDisorder (GAD-7)NANANANA561Students and staff4Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Finland
1635YESJournal ArticleDigital mental health literacy -program for the first-year medical students’ wellbeing: a one group quasi-experimental study2021Kurki M,Sonja G,Kaisa M,Lotta L,Terhi L,Susanna HY,Atte S,Subina U,Yifeng W,Andre SBMC Medical EducationBackground: Medical students are prone to mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, and their psychological burden is mainly related to their highly demanding studies. Interventions are needed to improve medical students’ mental health literacy (MHL) and wellbeing. This study assessed the digital Transitions, a MHL program for medical students that covered blended life skills and mindfulness activities. Methodology: This was a one group, quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study. The study population was 374 first-year students who started attending the medical faculty at the University of Turku, Finland, in 2018-2019. Transitions was provided as an elective course and 220 students chose to attend and 182 agreed to participate in our research. Transitions included two 60-minute lectures, four weeks apart, with online self-learning material in between. The content focused on life and academic skills, stress management, positive mental health, mental health problems and disorders. It included mindfulness audiotapes. Mental health knowledge, stigma and help-seeking questionnaires were used to measure MHL. The Perceived Stress Scale and General Health Questionnaire measured the students’ stress and health, respectively. A single group design, with repeated measurements of analysis of variance, was used to analyze the differences in the mean outcome scores for the 158 students who completed all three stages: the pre-test (before the first lecture), the post-test (after the second lecture) and the two-month follow-up evaluation. Results: The students’ mean scores for mental health knowledge improved (-1.6, 95% Cl -1.9 to -1.3, P<.001) and their emotional symptoms were alleviated immediately after the program (0.5, 95% Cl 0.0 to 1.1, P=.040). The changes were maintained at the two-month follow up (-1.7, 95% Cl -2.0 to -1.4, P<.001 and 1.0, 95% Cl 0.2 to 1.8, P=.019, respectively). The students’ stress levels reduced (P=.022) and their attitudes towards help-seeking improved after the program (P<.001), but these changes were not maintained at the two-month follow up. The stigma of mental illness did not change during the study (P=.13). Conclusions: The digital Transitions program was easily integrated into the university curriculum and it improved the students’ mental health literacy and wellbeing. The program may respond to the increasing global need for universal digital services, especially during the lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial registration: The trial was registered at the ISRCTN registry (26 May 2021), registration number 10.1186/ISRCTN10565335).BioMed Central Ltd1472-6920http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S12909-021-02990-4;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3474225810.1186/S12909-021-02990-4Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)HealthGeneral Health Questionnairemental healthNAWell-beingNANANANANA182Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyFinland
1644NOJournal ArticleMindfulness in a Moroccan University: Exploring Students’ Transformational Journey Through an Academic Course in Mindfulness2021Kumar SJournal of Transformative EducationThis study examines how students experienced and made meaning of a novel academic course in mindfulness, offered to foster holistic learning through self-knowledge. For this interpretive phenomenol...SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA1552-7840https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1541344620986218;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/154134462098621810.1177/1541344620986218Self-awarenessNAWell-beingNACompassionNA WisdomNAExperience profound transformationNANANA17Students16Semi-structured interviewsQualitative StudyMorocco
1655NOJournal ArticleEffectiveness of brief mindfulness practice for enhancing graduate students’ attention2021Krumholz MF,Pinnell C,Sullivan DPsychology & NeuroscienceObjective: The present study examined the effects of different administration formats of a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on state mindfulness, trait mindfulness, and attention in graduate students. Participants received a four-session brief MBI in a mass (four consecutive days) or spaced-interval format (once weekly sessions for four consecutive weeks) to determine differential effects on state mindfulness, trait mindfulness, and attention. Method: Participants were 42 graduate psychology students enrolled in master’s or doctorate programs who participated in four audio sessions in either the mass or spaced-interval formats. Measures included two administrations of the trait Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and Seashore Rhythm Test and four administrations of the state MAAS. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance (ANOVA) and t tests. Results: The interval group experienced a significant increase in trait mindfulness from pre to postintervention (d = 1.54), while there was no change in the mass group. There were no between-groups differences for state mindfulness or attention. After collapsing the groups, attention significantly improved from pre to postintervention (d = 0.34). There were significant linear and quadratic trends for state mindfulness. Conclusions: The significant difference between groups for trait mindfulness suggests that a longer span of time (i.e., 4 weeks vs. 1 week) is more effective for increasing trait mindfulness when participants engaged in identical MBI sessions. Furthermore, the duration of practice before trait mindfulness benefits emerge was shorter than previously documented in the literature. In addition, both formats were associated with significant increases in participant’s state mindfulness and attention, underscoring the flexibility of the intervention.US: Educational Publishing Foundation1983-3288http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/PNE000026810.1037/PNE0000268AttentionMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANANANANANANANA42Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
1665YESJournal ArticleDaily change patterns in mindfulness and psychological health: A pilot intervention2021Kim SY,Suh H,Oh W,Daheim JJournal of Clinical PsychologyObjective: This study examined the differences in first-year college students' daily change trajectories in subjective happiness, depression, anxiety, stress, and state mindfulness. Method: A 5-day, online mindfulness-based intervention (MI) condition and stress management (SM) condition were employed in 247 first-year college students. Results: Students in both the MI and SM conditions displayed similar significant linear declines in anxiety and stress, but there were significant differences between the two conditions, including: (1) the MI condition showing a significant linear increase in subjective happiness compared with no change in the SM condition and (2) the SM condition showed a significant linear decrease in depression compared to no significant change in the MI condition. Conclusion: Brief online interventions—whether MI or SM—can promote better mental health and reduce psychological distress. The results also lend support for MI's differential influence on first-year college students' happiness and SM's differential influence on their depression.NA1097-4679https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jclp.23043;http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.2304310.1002/jclp.23043Subjective happinessThe 4‐item Subjective Happiness Scale& depression21‐item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale‐AnxietyDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Stress reliefDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANA247First‐year college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a large public university in the
southwestern United States
1Experimental with pre and post-interventionRandomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
1684NOJournal ArticleRelationships Between Mindfulness Facets and Mental and Physical Health in Meditating and Nonmeditating University Students2021Karing C,Oeltjen L,Beelmann AEuropean Journal of Health PsychologyAbstract. Background: Little is known about the relations of the mindfulness facets to mental and physical health among meditators and nonmeditators. Aim: The main purpose of the present study was ...Hogrefe Publishing2512-8450https://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/10.1027/2512-8442/a000085;http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/2512-8442/A00008510.1027/2512-8442/A000085Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANANANANANANANA508StudentsNASurveySingle assessmentGermany
1670NAJournal ArticleMindful eating, obesity, and risk of type 2 diabetes in university students: A cross-sectional study2021Kes D,Cicek SCNursing ForumBackground: Understanding gender differences in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity risk among university students is critical for the development of health promotion interventions. Mindful eating focuses on how and why eating behavior occurs rather than what is eaten. Current research on this topic is limited in the university-aged population. Purpose: The aim of this study was to (1) assess gender differences in risk of developing T2DM and elevated body mass index (BMI)/obesity; (2) explore the mindful eating levels according to the gender perspective; and (3) evaluate the relationship between mindful eating, BMI, and the risk of T2DM among young Turkish adults. Method: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted in Karabuk University University, Turkey, during the 2017–2018 university calendar year. Eight hundred young adults were selected by the convenience sampling method. Data analyses used were the independent t test and Pearson correlational statistics. Results: BMI values of males were significantly higher than those of females (p 0.05). Mindful eating was significantly associated with BMI and the risk of developing T2DM in the young adult populations (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our findings can provide a basic reference for developing interventions that improve healthy eating habits and weight-loss strategies.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1744-6198http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/NUF.12561;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3361622710.1111/NUF.12561NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1696noJournal ArticleEvaluating the Implementation and Effectiveness of a Low-Dose Mindfulness-Based Intervention in a Student Sample: a Randomized Controlled Trial2021Karing C,Beelmann AMindfulnessObjectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a low-dose mindfulness-based intervention had short- and middle-term effects on primary (mindfulness, mental and physical health, self-efficacy) and secondary outcomes (attentional control, body awareness, emotion regulation and nonattachment). Further, the study examined whether participant compliance (course attendance, mindfulness practice at home) and satisfaction improved the change in primary and secondary outcomes. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 71 university students were assigned to a mindfulness group (n = 35) or a waitlist group (n = 36). The intervention was a 6-week mindfulness-based training. The outcome variables were measured at pre- and postintervention, and at 2.5 months postintervention. Results: At postintervention and at follow-up, the students in the mindfulness group showed a greater increase over time in mindfulness, self-efficacy, body awareness, and reappraisal than the students in the waitlist control group (Cohen’s d = 0.43–1.06). Although a significant intervention effect on nonattachment was found in the Per Protocol sample at postintervention and at follow-up, this effect was not significant in the Intention-To-Treat sample. Further, satisfaction with the training, course attendance, and the frequency of mindfulness practice at home were associated with positive changes in outcome variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that a low-dose mindfulness-based intervention can promote mindfulness, self-efficacy, body awareness, and reappraisal in students. The quality of implementation seems to be important for the benefits of a low-dose mindfulness-based training.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01613-910.1007/S12671-021-01613-9Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Mental health complaintsAnxiety and depression (PHQ-4, Löwe et al.,2010)Physical health complaintsSix items (e.g., headache, back pain, stomach ache, circulatory prob-lems/dizziness, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea/constipation)NANASelf-efficacy10-item general self-efficacy scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem,1999)NANA71Students6Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
1705YESMiscellaneousThe impact of virtual reality meditation on college students' exam performance2021Kaplan-Rakowski R,Johnson KR,Wojdynski TSmart Learning EnvironmentsAbstractAdvocates of meditation claim that it can improve various aspects of life, including health, attention, thinking, and learning. The purpose of this empirical, quantitative, between‑subject study was twofold. First, it compared the effectiveness of meditation delivered through virtual reality versus video, as measured by students’ test scores. Second, the study provided insights on the use of meditation, whether via virtual reality or video, as a way to positively affect well‑being. T‑test analysis showed virtual reality meditation to be significantly more beneficial than video meditation. Students reported that meditation techniques delivered using either medium to be helpful in decreasing their pre‑exam anxiety. This study has practical implications and offers evidence on the beneficial impact of VR meditation on students’ exam performance and anxiety levels.Keywords:Mindfulness, Meditation, Virtual reality, Anxiety, Well‑being, ExamOpen Access© The Author(s), 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the mate‑rial. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat iveco mmons. org/ licen ses/ by/4. 0/.RESEARCHKaplan‑Rakowski et al. Smart Learn. Environ. (2021) 8:21 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561‑021‑00166‑7Smart Learning Environments*Correspondence: Regina.Kaplanrakowski@unt.edu 1 Department of Learning Technologies, College of Information, University of North Texas, 3940 N. Elm Street, G159, Denton, TX 76207, USAFull list of author information is available at the end of the articleNANAhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-021-00166-7;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40561-021-00166-710.1186/s40561-021-00166-7RelaxationNAImproved performanceNANANANANANANANANA61Students1Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designPoland
1715YESJournal ArticleThe importance of formal versus informal mindfulness practice for enhancing psychological wellbeing and study engagement in a medical student cohort with a 5-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program2021Kakoschke N,Hassed C,Chambers R,Lee KPLoS ONEPurpose: Medical students commonly experience elevated psychological stress and poor mental health. To improve psychological wellbeing, a 5-week mindfulness-based lifestyle course was delivered to a first-year undergraduate medical student cohort as part of the core curriculum. This study investigated the effects of the program on mental health, perceived stress, study engagement, dispositional mindfulness, and whether any improvements were related to amount of formal and/or informal mindfulness practice. Methods: Participants were first year undergraduate medical students (N = 310, 60% female, M = 18.60 years) with N = 205 individuals completing pre and post course questionnaires in a 5-week mindfulness-based lifestyle intervention. At pre- and post-intervention, participants completed the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, and the Mindfulness Adherence Questionnaire. Results: Mental health, perceived stress, study engagement, and mindfulness all improved from preto post-intervention (all p values < .001). Improvements on these outcome measures were inter-related such that PSS change scores were negatively correlated with all other change scores, FMI change scores were positively correlated with MHC-SF and UWES-S change scores, the latter of which was positively correlated with MHC-SF change scores (all p values < .01). Finally, observed improvements in all of these outcomes were positively related to informal practice quality while improved FMI scores were related to formal practice (all p values < .05). Conclusions: A 5-week mindfulness-based program correlates with improving psychological wellbeing and study engagement in medical students. These improvements particularly occur when students engage in informal mindfulness practice compared to formal practice.Public Library of Science1932-6203http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0258999;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3467383010.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0258999Mental healthMental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) (Keyes 2005)Perceived stressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Study engagementUtrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S)Mindfulness LevelNANANANANA310Students5Pre and post course questionnairesPretest–post-test designAustralia
1726NOJournal ArticleThe Effects of a Mindfulness Program on Mental Health in Students at an Undergraduate Program for Teacher Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Real-Life2021Juul L,Brorsen E,Gøtzsche K,Nielsen BL,Fjorback LOFrontiers in PsychologyBackground: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a mindfulness program including Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on the mental health of student teachers when offered at their educational institution in a real-life context. Methods: A parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted among self-selected student teachers at a Danish undergraduate program for teacher education in the autumns of 2019 and 2020. Participation was not recommended in case of (1) clinical depression or a diagnosis of psychosis or schizophrenia, (2) abuse of alcohol, drugs, and/or medicine. Randomization was performed by a Statistician who was blinded to the identity of the students. Data was collected using self-reported questionnaires. The primary outcome was a change in perceived stress 3 months from baseline. Secondary outcome measures were symptoms of anxiety and depression, well-being, resilience, mindfulness, and thoughts and feelings during rest. The effects were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle using mixed-effect linear regression models. Mediating effects of mindfulness skills on the mental health outcomes were explored using structural equation modeling. Results: The study group included 67 student teachers with 34 allocated to the intervention group (median age: 25 years; women: n = 24, 71%); and 33 students (median age: 25 years; women: n = 25, 76%) allocated to a waiting list control group. At baseline, mean Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores were 18.88 (SD: 5.75) in the intervention group and 17.91 (SD: 6.36) in the waiting list control group. A total of 56 students completed the questionnaire at a 3-month follow-up (28 in both the intervention- and the control group). Statistically significant effects of the intervention were found on perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, well-being, and on three of seven resting-state dimensions. No effects were found on resilience or mindfulness. Statistically significant mediated effects via resting-state dimensions were found. Conclusion The findings suggested that offering a mindfulness program at an undergraduate program for teacher education could significantly improve the mental health among self-selected students within 3 months. Results of mediation analysis supported the hypothesis that some of the effects might be explained by reduced distracting thoughts. Clinical Trial Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04558099].Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2021.722771/BIBTEX10.3389/FPSYG.2021.722771/BIBTEXStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)mental healthNANANANANANANANANA67Students and teachers12Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
1734NOJournal ArticleThe effect of a mindfulness-based education program on brain waves and the autonomic nervous system in university students2021Jung M,Lee MHealthcare (Switzerland)Background: Mindfulness, defined as the awareness emerging from purposefully paying attention to the present moment, has been shown to be effective in reducing stress and, thus, promoting psychological well-being. This study investigated the effects of a mindfulness-based education program on mindfulness, brain waves, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in university students in Korea. Methods: This study is a quantitative and experimental research with a single-group pre-post design. Six sessions of mindfulness-based intervention were applied. In total, 42 students completed a mindfulness questionnaire before and after the intervention, and 28 among them completed pre-intervention and post-intervention measures of brain waves and ANS. Results: The level of mindfulness increased in the participants after intervention. Regarding brain waves, the alpha and theta waves increased, but the beta waves decreased. There was no significant difference in the ANS, presenting no change in heart rate variability. Conclusions: We identified the positive effects of the mindfulness-based education program for university students. The findings indicate that this program may help students not only relax, but also generate a mindfulness state in stressful situations, potentially leading to a successful university life. This study can be used as a basis for quality improvement and sustainability of mindfulness-based education programs for university students.MDPI2227-9032http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare911160610.3390/healthcare9111606RelaxationHe Me, Another, Us, and Mate (MAUM) Scale 21Mindfulness LevelHe Me, Another, Us, and Mate (MAUM) Scale 21Successful university lifeNANANANANANANA42Students1Quantitative and experimental research with a single-group pre-post designPretest–post-test designKorea
1745NOMiscellaneousA randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction on academic resilience and performance in college students2021Jennifer N. Baumgartner P,Tamera R. Schneider PJournal of American College HealthObjective: The transition into college can pose barriers for student success. We examined the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) compared to an active and no treatment control group, respectively, on stressor appraisals, academic persistence, and performance in unversity students. Participants: Students were randomly assigned to receive MBSR (n = 29), study skills active control (n = 27), or no treatment (n = 29). Method: Participants reported stressor appraisals and academic persistence pre- and post-intervention. Semester grade point average (GPA) and enrollment was also obtained. Results: Academic stressor appraisals did not vary by group. MBSR was protective against depleted academic persistence, whereas academic persistence decreased in the control groups. Enrollment rates remained unchanged in the MBSR group, but increased in the active control relative to no treatment. Finally, GPA improved in the MBSR group, but not controls. Conclusions: Findings suggest that MBSR confers some benefits for resilience in university students.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.195072810.1080/07448481.2021.1950728PerformanceSemester grade point average (GPA) NANANANANANANANANANA56StudentsNAPretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designUSA
1755NOJournal ArticleThe effects of mindfulness training on mindfulness, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and performance satisfaction among female student-athletes: The moderating role of age2021Hut M,Glass CR,Degnan KA,Minkler TOAsian Journal of Sport and Exercise PsychologyResearch has suggested that mindfulness can help combat stress, increase self-compassion, and improve well-being. Although mindfulness is also beneficial for student-athletes, little is known about how developmental differences due to age may influence intervention efficacy. The present study investigated whether 6-week Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE) training had a differential effect on younger (first and second year) compared to older (third and fourth year) college student-athletes’ mindfulness, sport anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and satisfaction with both attention/emotion regulation and physical sport performance. Participants were 39 younger and 21 older female athletes from three teams (lacrosse, field hockey, track & field) at a private university in the United States, ranging in age from 18-22. Multiple 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVAs revealed significant reductions in sport anxiety as well as significant improvements on self-ratings of satisfaction with both attention/emotion regulation and physical sport performance. Older student-athletes improved more than their younger teammates on sport mindfulness, and independent samples t-tests indicated that older student-athletes reported more frequent mindfulness practice during workouts, team practice, and competitions. Linear regressions found that age predicted reductions in sport anxiety and improvements in dispositional mindful acceptance. Finally, student-athletes perceived MSPE to be moderately to highly successful in promoting change in a variety of performance-related areas such as anxiety reduction, focus, and the ability to let things go. The implications of these results are presented, as well as suggestions for future research on mindfulness mental training with college athletes.KeAi Communications Co.2667-2391http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.AJSEP.2021.06.00210.1016/J.AJSEP.2021.06.002Mindfulness for sportMindfulness inventory for sport (MIS)Sport anxietySport anxiety scale-2 (SAS-2)NANANANANANANANA60Female Students6Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
1784NOJournal ArticleThe Art of Introducing Mindfulness into Medical and Allied Health Curricula2021Hassed CMindfulnessObjectives: Mindfulness is now widely used therapeutically in health settings, but for a range of reasons, it is not commonly integrated into the education of health professionals. This article aims to share practical insights and lessons learned from teaching mindfulness as core curriculum to the whole cohorts of medical students at Monash University. Methods: This reflective article will provide a personal perspective drawing on many years’ experience since the early 1990s of integrating mindfulness into the core medical curriculum including outlining the mindfulness-based lifestyle program delivered to the medical students. This will provide a backdrop to sharing important lessons relating to preparation, integration, delivery and review of mindfulness curriculum. A range of practical issues will be explored including making the case for it to faculty, finding the right language, giving it a context and rationale, using the most conducive teaching style, having the right tutors, carefully dealing with resistance, finding appropriate methods of assessment and the importance of review. Results: Evaluations and feedback on the program over a number of years have shown a high level of acceptance and utilisation of mindfulness-based skills by students. Since its inception, mindfulness training has now become integral in the training of many other health professional students at Monash. Conclusions: If done effectively, mindfulness can be successfully introduced and integrated into core curriculum of medical and allied health students using it as a meta-skill to support the development of student wellbeing a range of important clinical competencies.Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01647-z;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01647-Z/TABLES/310.1007/S12671-021-01647-Z/TABLES/3Well‑beingNANANANANANANANANANANANANANAReflective articleQualitative StudyAustralia
1760NAJournal ArticleMindful Construal Reflections: Reducing Unhealthier Eating Choices2021Hussain M,Egan H,Keyte R,Mantzios MMindfulnessObjectives: Regularly choosing unhealthy energy-dense foods can have negative health consequences. The present study tested whether a mindful eating–specific tool, namely Mindful Construal Reflection (MCR), would promote healthier eating behaviors. Methods: Eighty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a mindfulness or control condition and were served M&Ms and grapes as an unhealthy and healthy option respectively. Results: Participants in the mindfulness condition consumed significantly less M&Ms than those in the control condition, but no significant differences were found in the consumption of grapes between the two conditions. Furthermore, control participants ate significantly more M&Ms when displaying some hunger compared to those presenting no hunger, and although participants in the mindfulness condition also ate more when displaying some hunger, this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Together, these results suggest that the MCR may be effective in reducing consumption of unhealthy energy-dense foods. However, future research is warranted in developing the MCR to encourage consumption of healthier food options.Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01638-0;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01638-0/FIGURES/310.1007/S12671-021-01638-0/FIGURES/3NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1770NAJournal ArticleResponse to: Mindfulness-based mobile app reduces anxiety and increases self-compassion in healthcare students: A randomised controlled trial2021Huang F,Mu ZMedical TeacherDear EditorWe read with great interest the article by Orosa-Duarte et al. (2021) on mindfulness-based mobile app improving anxiety and self-compassion in healthcare students. This study provides a ...Taylor & Francis1466-187Xhttps://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/0142159X.2021.1918657;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2021.1918657;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3397448210.1080/0142159X.2021.1918657NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1796YESJournal ArticleEffect of an internet- and app-based stress intervention compared to online psychoeducation in university students with depressive symptoms: Results of a randomized controlled trial2021Harrer M,Apolinário-Hagen J,Fritsche L,Salewski C,Zarski AC,Lehr D,Baumeister H,Cuijpers P,Ebert DDInternet InterventionsDepression is highly prevalent among university students. Internet-based interventions have been found to be effective in addressing depressive symptoms, but it is open if this also applies to interventions directed at academic stress. It is also largely unclear if the techniques employed in such programs provide significant additional benefits when controlling for non-specific intervention effects. A sample of N = 200 students with elevated levels of depression (CES-D ≥ 16) of a large distance-learning university were randomly assigned to either an Internet- and App-based stress intervention group (IG; n = 100) or an active control group (CG; n = 100) receiving an Internet-based psychoeducational program of equal length. Self-report data was assessed at baseline, post-treatment (7 weeks) and three-month follow-up. The primary outcome was depression (CES-D) post-treatment. Secondary outcomes included mental health outcomes, modifiable risk factors, and academic outcomes. We found significant between-group effects on depressive symptom severity (d = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.08–0.64), as well as behavioral activation (d = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.30–0.91), perceived stress (d = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.18–0.73), anxiety (d = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.03–0.67) and other secondary outcomes post-treatment. Effects on depression were sustained at three-month follow-up. Response rates for depressive symptoms were significantly higher in the IG (26%) than the CG (14%) at post-test (χ2=4.5, p = 0.04), but not at three-month follow-up (p = 0.454). We also found significant effects on relevant academic outcomes, including work impairment (follow-up; d = 0.36), work output (post-treatment; d = 0.27) and work cutback (follow-up; d = 0.36). The intervention was more effective for depressive symptoms compared to the CG, and so controlling for unspecific intervention effects. This suggests that specific techniques of the intervention may provide significant additional benefits on depressive symptoms. Trial registration: German Clinical Trial Registration (DRKS): DRKS00011800 (https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00011800).Elsevier B.V.2214-7829http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.INVENT.2021.10037410.1016/J.INVENT.2021.100374DepressionGerman version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies’ Depression Scale (CES-D)Mental HealthActivation for Depression ScaleAcademic productivitySubscale for Work ImpairmentNANANANANANA200Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Swiss, Germany
1804NOJournal ArticleImmediate effects of meditation in college students: A pilot study examining the role of baseline attention performance and trait mindfulness2021Greif TR,Kaufman DAJournal of American College HealthObjective: Determine feasibility of a procedure to identify relationships between preexisting traits and immediate mindfulness meditation (MM) responses in novice college students. Participants: Twenty-four novice college students participated between September 2016 and April 2017. Methods: We measured trait mindfulness, attention and executive function performance, and immediate MM-related changes in self-reported state mindfulness and state anxiety following a 13-min MM. Results: The procedure appeared to be feasible and acceptable to college students. Preliminary findings included increases in state mindfulness and decreases in state anxiety, which appeared to vary by level of trait mindfulness. Better attention performance correlated with greater increases in state mindfulness of body. Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrated feasibility of investigating the relationship between baseline traits and college students’ immediate MM responses. Using these methods, future studies can provide a unique examination of MM effects stratified by validated facets of state mindfulness of body and mind.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1650052;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3147880510.1080/07448481.2019.1650052Mindfulness levelThe State Mindfulness Scale (SMS)AttentionThe Test of Premorbid Function (TOPF50)NANANANANANANANA24Students32Pilot studyPilot studyEstonia
1815YESJournal ArticleMindfulness in the College Classroom and Wellness Promotion: The Impact of Mindfulness Curriculum on Self-Reported Health and Well-Being in University Students2021Gray LAInternational Journal of Learning in Higher EducationThis study investigated the effects of an undergraduate course offering a mindfulness skill development curriculum. The students’ self-assessments at the beginning and end of the semester focused on perceived stress, mindful awareness, resilience, procrastination, self-compassion, and sleep quality. One-hundred and four young adults enrolled at a large midwestern four-year university (n = 76 experimental group, n = 28 comparison group) participated in a threecredit hour undergraduate course in which they were assessed twice on the dependent variables. Fourteen weeks of participating in the mindfulness skill course resulted in significant reductions in perceived stress levels and procrastination and increases in self-compassion, mindful awareness, and sleep quality. There were no significant differences found in the results when accounting for whether the course was completed online (n = 53) or in a traditional classroom format (n = 23), with the exception of the procrastination and self-compassion scores, which was not significantly changed for the students enrolled in the online format. Offering an effective skill development curriculum to students that in turn supports multiple dimensions of their health and well-being is an increasingly critical aspect of student support. The results also suggest some valuable insight toward the future development of higher education models to support a healthier emerging adult population that can thrive in college and is better prepared for life after college.Common Ground Research Networks2327-8749http://dx.doi.org/10.18848/2327-7955/CGP/V28I02/99-10910.18848/2327-7955/CGP/V28I02/99-109Perceived stressNAAwarenessNA resilienceNA& ProcrastinationNA& Self-compassionNASleep qualityNA76Students14Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
1825YESMiscellaneousFeasibility of a Brief Online Mindfulness and Compassion-Based Intervention to Promote Mental Health Among University Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic2021González-García M,Álvarez JC,Pérez EZ,Fernandez-Carriba S,López JGMindfulnessObjectives: The COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a global mental health challenge that has disrupted the lives of millions of people, with a considerable effect on university students. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a brief online Mindfulness and Compassion-based Intervention to promote mental health among first year university students during COVID-19 home confinement. Methods: Participants (n=66) were first-year psychology students from a university in Spain with no prior meditation experience. Intervention lasted for 16 days and was designed ad-hoc. Using a pre–post within-subjects design, feasibility was assessed in five domains (acceptability, satisfaction, implementation, practicality, and limited efficacy testing). Participants completed both baseline and post-intervention assessments of perceived stress, anxiety, and self-compassion. Results: The intervention showed to be feasible in all domains evaluated. It was implemented as planned with constrained resources, and limited efficacy testing showed promising results. After the intervention, stress and anxiety levels decreased significantly (p<0.001, Hedges’s g=0.5146; p<0.001, Hedges’s g=0.6068, respectively) whereas self-compassion levels were augmented significantly (p<0.001, Hedges’s g=0.6968). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a brief online mindfulness and compassion intervention may be a feasible way of promoting mental health among university students during COVID-19 lockdown. Further studies are required to address the limitations of the present study. We conclude that online interventions may constitute a promising pathway to buffer the mental health burden derived from the COVID-19 pandemic.Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-021-01632-6;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-021-01632-6/FIGURES/110.1007/S12671-021-01632-6/FIGURES/1Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)AnxietyThe State-Trait AnxietyInventory (STAI)Self-CompassionSelf-Compassion Scale (SCS)NANANANANANA66Students2Pre–post within-subjects designPretest–post-test designSpain
1836NOJournal ArticleEffectiveness of providing university students with a mindfulness-based intervention to increase resilience to stress: 1-year follow-up of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial2021Galante J,Stochl J,Dufour G,Vainre M,Wagner AP,Jones PBJournal of Epidemiology and Community HealthBackground There is concern that increasing demand for student mental health services reflects deteriorating student well-being. We designed a pragmatic, parallel, single-blinded randomised controlled trial hypothesising that providing mindfulness courses to university students would promote their resilience to stress up to a year later. Here we present 1-year follow-up outcomes. Methods University of Cambridge students without severe mental illness or crisis were randomised (1:1, remote software-generated random numbers), to join an 8-week mindfulness course adapted for university students (Mindfulness Skills for Students (MSS)), or to mental health support as usual (SAU). Results We randomised 616 students; 53% completed the 1-year follow-up questionnaire. Self-reported psychological distress and mental well-being improved in the MSS arm for up to 1 year compared to SAU (p<0.001). Effects were smaller than during the examination period. No significant differences between arms were detected in the use of University Counselling Service and other support resources, but there was a trend for MSS participants having milder needs. There were no differences in students' workload management; MSS participants made more donations. Home practice had positive dose-response effects; few participants meditated. No adverse effects related to self-harm, suicidality or harm to others were detected. Conclusion Loss to follow-up is a limitation, but evidence suggests beneficial effects on students' average psychological distress that last for at least a year. Effects are on average larger at stressful times, consistent with the hypothesis that this type of mindfulness training increases resilience to stress. Trial registration number ACTRN12615001160527.BMJ Publishing Group1470-2738http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/JECH-2020-214390;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3291313010.1136/JECH-2020-214390Stress reliefCORE-OMResilienceCORE-OMNANANANANANANANA616Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)United Kingdom
1845YESJournal ArticleStress reduction through mindfulness meditation in student registered nurse anesthetists2021Foley T,Lanzillotta-Rangeley JAANA JournalStudent registered nurse anesthetists (SRNAs) experience high levels of stress related to the level of difficulty and time commitment associated with an integrated Doctor of Nursing Practice anesthesia program. Although some degree of stress is necessary for motivation, unmanaged stress can contribute to illness, dissatisfaction, and substance use. A search of the literature showed that mindfulness meditation training reduces stress and improves academic performance in graduate student populations. An evidence-based practice project was developed and implemented to provide SRNAs with a novel stress management mechanism. A guided mindfulness meditation application for smart phones (Headspace, Headspace) was chosen as the intervention modality. Research shows that this application is an effective and convenient delivery system for mindfulness meditation training, decreasing stress during a 10-day trial. SRNAs attended a mindfulness presentation and completed an introductory guided mindfulness meditation module using the Headspace application on their personal smart phone. Preintervention and postintervention surveys (N=33) using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21-item questionnaire were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results showed significant reductions (P<.01) in depression (Z=−3.36), anxiety (Z=−3.07), and stress (Z=−3.46) scores, representing reductions of 32%, 32%, and 47%.AANA Publishing Inc.2162-5239https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34342565NADepression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANANANANANANANA33Students2Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
1854NOJournal ArticleStudent counsellor experiences of mindfulness-based intervention training: A systematic review of the qualitative literature2021Fletcher L,Pond R,Gardiner BPsychotherapy ResearchThis systematic review aimed to critically synthesize research examining trainee therapists’ experiences of learning and using mindfulness. It explored the personal and professional benefits and ch...Routledge1468-4381https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/10503307.2021.1946615;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503307.2021.1946615;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3425198510.1080/10503307.2021.1946615Emotional regulationNAWell-beingNANANANANANANANANANANANALiterature RevewReviewNA
1874NOJournal ArticleDoes mindfulness belong in higher education?–An eight year research of students’ experiences2021Ergas O,Hadar LLPedagogy, Culture and SocietyWithin the recent rise in the incorporation of contemplative practices in higher education, mindfulness stands out as the most studied and implemented practice. However, most of its studied implementations have been focused on interventions associated with mental health. Very little attention has been given to the study of mindfulness's potential broader educational impact. This study is based on the analysis of final assignments from the course „mindfulness and education„, taught to 673 students at three Faculties of Education between 2011 and 2018 and on a retrospective questionnaire. Results show that in addition to common effects of mindfulness (e.g., stress-reduction), many students recognised mindfulness as an educational practice that had transformed their view of the nature of education and sometimes of life itself. The paper lends support to the understanding and framing of mindfulness as aformative educational practice that accords with aims of higher education.Routledge1747-5104http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2021.190630710.1080/14681366.2021.1906307Stress reliefNANANANANANANANANANANA673StudentsNAAnalysisQualitative StudyUSA
1860NAJournal ArticleSpecific mindfulness traits protect against negative effects of trait anxiety on medical student wellbeing during high-pressure periods2021Fino E,Martoni M,Russo PMAdvances in Health Sciences EducationMedical education is highly demanding and evidence shows that medical students are three times more susceptible to deteriorating physical and mental health than the average college student. While trait anxiety may further increase such risk, little is known about the role of trait mindfulness in mitigating these effects. Here we examine the protective role of specific mindfulness facets as mediators in pathways from trait anxiety to perceived stress, psychosomatic burden and sleep-wake quality in medical students, across repeated measurements throughout the first trimester of the school year. Preclinical medical students enrolled in the second year of the Medical School of University of Bologna completed self-report questionnaires examining personality traits as well as physical and psychological wellbeing. Data were collected at the beginning (Time 1: N = 349) and the end of the first trimester (Time 2: N = 305). As students approached the end of the trimester and upcoming exams, reported levels of perceived stress, psychosomatic problems and difficulties in wakefulness increased significantly compared to the beginning of the trimester. Mediation results showed that trait anxiety predicted such outcomes whereas the protective role of mindfulness facets in mitigating these effects was significant only at Time 2. Specific facets of Nonjudging of inner experience and Acting with awareness proved to be the most effective mediators. Findings highlight that the beneficial role of mindfulness facets in mitigating negative consequences of trait anxiety on medical student wellbeing is revealed in high-pressure periods and when self-regulation is needed the most. Cultivating awareness and nonjudgmental acceptance of one’s inner experiences is a crucial self-regulation resource that can help medical students sustain their wellbeing as they learn and throughout their high-pressure education and professional careers.Springer Science and Business Media B.V.1573-1677https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10459-021-10039-w;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S10459-021-10039-W/FIGURES/2;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3367548710.1007/S10459-021-10039-W/FIGURES/2NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
1885NOJournal ArticleThe effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program on students’ test performance2021Dressler M,Gulev REInternational Journal of Sustainable EconomyMindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mental training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. The current article seeks to explore if it can be scientifically determined that through mental training people can be led to act in a more sustainable manner with their mental forces and, at the same time, be significantly more efficient. The study sought to investigate the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on bachelor-level students’ weekly test results. The results showed that there are significant differences between the experimental and the control group. Mindfulness-based stress reduction was influential in achieving higher scores and grades thus supporting our research hypothesis. Accordingly, the current article demonstrates that training of mindfulness-based stress reduction can be successful in coping effectively with testing conditions that are conducted under time constraints.Inderscience Publishers1756-5812http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJSE.2021.11861710.1504/IJSE.2021.118617CopingNAStress reliefNANANANANANANANANANANANAQuasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyGermany
1896YESJournal ArticleThe Effectiveness of a Centering Meditation Intervention on College Stress and Mindfulness: A Randomized Controlled Trial2021Dorais S,Gutierrez DFrontiers in PsychologyBackground: Mental health concerns are climbing steadily on college campuses, and universities do not have the staffing and financial resources to address the overwhelming needs of students seeking counseling services. College counselors generally must place students on waitlists or refer them to external resources. Further, during the COVID-19 pandemic, university counselors have been working tirelessly to treat students through online formats. Alternative, online, evidence-based interventions offer college counselors a significant advantage in effectively treating their students. We seek to expand the empirical evidence for mindfulness interventions through online formats for the college population. We registered the study (ISRCTN13587045) at www.isrctn.com. Objective: We examined the effectiveness of a unique online centering meditation and its impact on stress and trait mindfulness in the college population. Methods: Through a randomized controlled trial, the treatment group participated in a 4-week intervention of centering for 10 min each morning and night. We measured stress and mindfulness in both groups through the Perceived Stress Scale and Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. Results: The centering meditation treatment had a statistically significant positive impact on stress and mindfulness compared to a waitlist control group. The meditation group had an average of 64% adherence rate. Conclusion: The study findings indicate that individuals who participate in a 4-week online centering intervention showed improved levels of stress and trait mindfulness over time. Clinical Trial Registration: WHO International Clinical Registry Platform, identifier: ISRCTN13587045.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2021.72082410.3389/FPSYG.2021.720824Mindfulness levelThe 12-item Cognitive and Affective MindfulnessScale-Revised (CAMS-R)Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANA249Students4Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
1904NOJournal ArticleA short mindfulness retreat for students to reduce stress and promote self-compassion: Pilot randomised controlled trial exploring both an indoor and a natural outdoor retreat setting2021Djernis D,O'toole MS,Fjorback LO,Svenningsen H,Mehlsen MY,Stigsdotter UK,Dahlgaard JHealthcare (Switzerland)Here, we developed and examined a new way of disseminating mindfulness in nature to people without meditation experience, based on the finding that mindfulness conducted in natural settings may have added benefits. We evaluated a 5-day residential programme aiming to reduce stress and improve mental health outcomes. We compared an indoor and an outdoor version of the programme to a control group in a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT). Sixty Danish university students experiencing moderate to high levels of stress were randomised into a residential mindfulness programme indoors (n = 20), in nature (n = 22), or a control group (n = 18). Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Self-Compassion Scale (primary outcomes) along with additional secondary outcome measures at the start and end of the program and 3 months after. Stress was decreased with small to medium effect sizes post-intervention, although not statistically significant. Self-compassion increased post-intervention, but effect sizes were small and not signifi-cant. At follow-up, changes in stress were not significant, however self-compassion increased for both interventions with medium-sized effects. For the intervention groups, medium-to large-sized positive effects on trait mindfulness after a behavioural task were found post-intervention, and small-to medium-sized effects in self-reported mindfulness were seen at follow-up. Connectedness to Nature was the only outcome measure with an incremental effect in nature, exceeding the control with a medium-sized effect at follow-up. All participants in the nature arm completed the intervention, and so did 97% of the participants in all three arms. Overall, the results encourage the conduct of a larger-scale RCT, but only after adjusting some elements of the programme to better fit and take advantage of the potential benefits of the natural environment.MDPI AG2227-9032http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/HEALTHCARE907091010.3390/HEALTHCARE9070910Perceived StressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Self-CompassionThe Self-Compassion ScaleNANANANANANANANA60Students1Pilot randomized controlled trialPilot studyDenmark
1934YESJournal ArticleAn Evaluation of an Online Brief Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Higher Education: A Pilot Conducted at an Australian University and a British University2021Chung J,Mundy ME,Hunt I,Coxon A,Dyer KR,McKenzie SFrontiers in PsychologyMental ill health among higher education students is a well-established problem; therefore, it is imperative to implement preventative approaches to support wellbeing. Blended and fully online education programmes widens access for mature or returning students; however, the psychological wellbeing of this sub-group of students is under-researched. Finally, evaluating wellbeing interventions that meet the needs of university students as well as accessible for online students is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate a brief, online and mindfulness-based intervention to assist the self-management of wellbeing and stress for both online and on-campus higher education students. The total sample included 427 participants (96% psychology students) at Monash University, Australia (n=283) and King’s College London (n=144), with 152 participants completing the whole study. Participants were allocated to a brief, self-guided, online and mindfulness-based intervention (over the course of one study period; n=297), or to a wait-list control group (n=148). Baseline and end of semester questionnaires included the 14-item Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the 15-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Regression modelling revealed the intervention condition accounted for up to 12% of the variability in change in student wellbeing, stress and mindfulness between the start and end of semester (when controlling for baseline). These findings support the implementation of a brief, online and asynchronous mindfulness-based intervention for supporting student mental health and psychological wellbeing. An on-going challenge in practice includes engaging and maintaining student engagement in wellbeing initiatives.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2021.752060/BIBTEX10.3389/FPSYG.2021.752060/BIBTEXWell‑beingWarwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being ScaleStress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Mindfulness LevelThe 15-item Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANANANA427StudentsNAPilot StudyPilot studyAustralia
1910NAJournal ArticleEffect of mindfulness- based cognitive therapy on health promoting behaviors in students with premenstrual syndrome: A randomized clinical trial2021Dafei M,Mahmoodabadi HZ,Dehghani A,Mahmoodabadi FMJournal of Mazandaran University of Medical SciencesBackground and purpose: Adolescence is an important and vital stage of life that is associated with physical, emotional, and evolutionary changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based counseling approach on health promoting behaviors in adolescents with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in 86 students with PMS selected from high schools in Meybod, Iran 2019. They were randomly divided into intervention group (n= 43) and control group (n= 43). The intervention group attended counseling sessions based on mindfulness approach for 8 sessions/2 hours/ a week. Demographic characteristics were recorded and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) and premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) were administered. The scales were completed in both groups at beginning of the study, and at weeks eight and 12 after the intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V19 applying independent t-test, repeated measures test, and LSD test. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in demographic variables (P>0.05). Before the intervention, there was no difference between the two groups in mean scores for health-promoting behaviors (P= 0.161), but, compared to the control group, the mean scores for healthpromoting behaviors in intervention group showed significant increase immediately and one month after the intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion: Mindfulness- based cognitive therapy was found to be effective in improving health promoting behaviors in students with PMS which could create effective and fundamental changes in adolescents’ behaviors towards achieving a healthy society.Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences1735-9260NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANANASampleNA NA
1920NOJournal ArticleMindfulness for Singers: A Mixed Methods Replication Study2021Czajkowski AM,Greasley AE,Allis MMusic and ScienceObjectives: Mindfulness has been explored in the clinical and educational fields but has rarely been studied in the music domain. This study investigated the effects of teaching eight-week Mindfulness for Singers courses on vocalists’ music education and performance. Methods: A mixed methods approach was utilized, which included controlled and randomized controlled trials using standardized and novel mindfulness measures pre- and post-intervention, interviews post-intervention and three months later, concurrent diaries, and a blinded teacher study. Participants included singing students (total n=52) and their teachers (n=11) from a university and a music college over a period of two years. Results: Levels of mindfulness increased over the intervention for experimental participants in comparison to controls. Considering their total student cohort, teachers identified 61% of eligible mindfulness singing participants as having completed the mindfulness intervention. Experimental participants reported that learning mindfulness had positive effects in lessons, solo and group instrumental practices, and when performing on stage. They described more focus and attention, positive effects of increased body awareness on singing technique, enhanced socio-collaborative relationships, reductions in performance anxiety, and beneficial effects whilst performing, such as more expressivity and enjoyment. Conclusions: Learning mindfulness had positive holistic effects on vocal students and was well received by their mindfulness-naïve singing teachers. Findings suggest that it would be highly beneficial for mindfulness to be made available in music conservatoires and university music departments alongside singing lessons for singers to enhance their present experience as vocal students and their futures as performers and teachers.SAGE Publications Ltd2059-2043http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2059204321104481610.1177/20592043211044816NANANANANANANANANANANANANANADuplicatedNA NA
1944NOJournal ArticleMindfulness in healthcare professionals and medical education2021Chmielewski J,Łoś K,Łuczyński WInternational Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental HealthHealthcare professionals are exposed not only to the ubiquitous stress, but also to the culture of perfectionism. Therefore, they need tools to achieve a balance between work and rest in order to effectively help their patients. The study objective is a review of the literature on the implementation of mindfulness in healthcare professionals and medical students. The authors searched the literature in PubMed and Google Scholar databases for publications about “mindfulness” in “healthcare professionals” and “medical students.” The search included manuscripts published to July 31, 2019. Mindfulness is a process of intentional paying attention to experiencing the present moment with curiosity, openness and acceptance of each experience without judgment. Mindfulness training leads to a better mood perception, lower stress perception, and responding to stimuli more effectively. All these features can have a potentially positive effect on healthcare service. The paper describes methods of intervention as well as their effects, which may be useful both in maintaining the well-being of healthcare professionals and in patient care. Mindfulness meditation has a beneficial effect on stress, depression, burnout, well-being and empathy among doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers. However, the method has a number of limitations, including a small number of participants, a high dropout rate in the intervention group and, above all, ceasing to practice mindfulness in the longer term after the course termination. Mindfulness can be widely implemented by healthcare professionals, thus improving their well-being and the quality of care they provide. Further standard scientific research is needed to confirm this impact. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(1):1–14Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine1896-494Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.13075/IJOMEH.1896.01542;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3322353710.13075/IJOMEH.1896.01542Stress reliefNAdepressionNABurnoutNAEmpathyNAWell-beingNANANANANANALiterature RevewReviewNA
1965YESJournal ArticleMindfulness and smoking frequency: An investigation with Australian students2021Chan EYAddictive Behaviors ReportsMindfulness training has been shown to be effective in reducing smoking frequency. However, mindfulness training instructions that are free of mentions about smoking are rare, which makes it difficult to ascertain if it is the temporary state of being mindful or demand effects that reduce smoking frequency. It has also been posited that mindfulness training lowers smoking frequency by helping smokers surf the urge, but this remains untested. Thus, we conducted an experiment to test the likely process. We used a 6-minute audio clip to induce a brief mindfulness state or a mind-wandering state in 91 Australian students; the brief mindfulness exercise was free of any mentions about smoking. We found that exposure to the mindfulness-inducing audio clip helped smokers surf their urge when they were later exposed to cigarette cues and they smoked less over the subsequent 7 days. The current work offers empirical evidence for why mindfulness training can be effective in smoking cessation.Elsevier Ltd2352-8532http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.ABREP.2021.10034210.1016/J.ABREP.2021.100342Smoking cessationThe 10-item short form of the Question-naire of Smoking UrgesNANANANANANANANANANA98Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyAustralia
1950NAJournal ArticleFeasibility and efficacy of integrating resiliency training into a pilot nurse residency program2021Chesak SS,Morin KH,Cutshall SM,Jenkins SM,Sood ANurse Education in PracticeThe high stress associated with the nursing profession can negatively affect the health of nurses and the quality of patient care that they provide. This quasi-experimental study aimed to 1) assess the feasibility of integrating a Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program within a nine-month pilot nurse residency program and 2) assess the effects of the program on participants’ stress, anxiety, mindfulness, and resilience relative to a comparison group. A pre- and post-intervention survey design was used, with measurements taken at baseline and at 1, 3, 9, and 12 months after baseline. We enrolled 51 registered nurses (intervention group, n = 23; comparison group, n = 28) at a Midwestern US academic medical center. Nurses in the intervention group had a participation rate of 93%–100% with SMART program events. Despite the relatively limited adherence to the protocol by intervention group participants, significant improvements were noted for stress (P < .001), mindfulness (P < .001), and resilience (P < .001) in the intervention group compared with the comparison group. The SMART program can potentially be successfully integrated into a nurse residency program and positively impact nurse stress, mindfulness, and resilience. Further research is needed to determine the proper dose of the intervention and methods to enhance adherence.Churchill Livingstone1471-5953http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.NEPR.2020.102959;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3345451110.1016/J.NEPR.2020.102959NANANANANANANANANANANANANANASampleNA NA
1974YESJournal ArticleThe impact of a smartphone meditation application on anesthesia trainee well-being2021Carullo PC,Ungerman EA,Metro DG,Adams PSJournal of Clinical AnesthesiaStudy objective: Physician burnout is a pervasive problem in the United States. The goal of this study was to investigate use of the smartphone meditation application Headspace® as a well-being improvement tool in anesthesia trainees. Design: Prospective self-controlled observational study. Setting: Anesthesia training program in an academic hospital. Subjects: Resident and fellow trainees in the Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Interventions: Resident and fellow trainees were given a free 1-year subscription to the mindfulness application. Participation was voluntary and included questionnaires at baseline, 1 month, and 4 months for assessment of burnout and well-being. Questionnaires were linked with the use of de-identified codes and completed via REDCap. Questionnaires included the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, Becks Depression Index, Cohens Stress Score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and a Headspace® Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Measurements: Depression, stress, sleep quality, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal achievement. Main results: Of 112 trainees eligible to participate, 71 completed baseline questionnaires, 54 created application accounts, and 29 completed the entire questionnaire protocol with 4 months of app use. Application use was associated with reduced depression scores and increased feelings of personal achievement at both 1 month (p = 0.003, p = 0.066) and 4 months (p = 0.011, p = 0.005). Burnout from feelings of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion did not improve with application use. Over the study period, trainees completed 786 meditation sessions, accounting for 6123 min of app engagement. Conclusions: Findings of decreased depression scores and improved feelings of personal achievement suggest that Headspace® could serve as a mindfulness tool for incorporating meditation into the daily practice of anesthesia trainees in an effort to improve well-being.Elsevier Inc.1873-4529http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLINANE.2021.110525;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3458331310.1016/J.JCLINANE.2021.110525NANANANANANANANANANANANA29StudentsNASelf-controlled observational studyQualitative StudyUSA
1986YESJournal ArticleA Mobile-Based Intervention to Increase Self-esteem in Students With Depressive Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Trial2021Bruhns A,Lüdtke T,Moritz S,Bücker LJMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021;9(7):e26498 https://mhealth. jmir. org/2021/7/e26498Background: Depressive symptoms are one of the most common and ever-increasing mental health problems among students worldwide. Conventional treatment options, particularly psychotherapy, do not reach all students in need of help. Internet- and mobile-based interventions are promising alternatives for narrowing the treatment gap. Objective: In the framework of a randomized controlled trial, we aim to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and side effects of a self-help smartphone app (MCT & More) based on cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy, and metacognitive training in a sample of students with self-reported depressive symptoms. Furthermore, we were interested in examining the influence of treatment expectations and attitudes toward internet- and mobile-based interventions on treatment adherence and effectiveness. Methods: A total of 400 students were recruited via open access websites and randomized to either the intervention group (n=200), who received access to the self-help smartphone app MCT & More for a period of 4 weeks, or to a wait-list control group (n=200). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression) served as the primary outcome parameter, and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (self-esteem) and the global item of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-abbreviated version (quality of life) served as the secondary outcome parameters. The Attitudes Towards Psychological Online Interventions was used to measure attitudes toward internet- and mobile-based interventions. Outcome expectations were assessed using the Patient Questionnaire on Therapy Expectation and Evaluation, and side effects were assessed using the Inventory for Assessing Negative Effects of Psychotherapy. Results: Per-protocol (PP), complete-case, and intention-to-treat analyses showed a significantly higher reduction in depressive symptoms (PP: F1,222=3.98; P=.047; d=0.26) and a significantly higher increase in self-esteem (PP: F1,220=8.79; P=.003; d=0.40) in the intervention group than in the wait-list control group. Most participants regularly used the self-help smartphone app (91/120, 75.8%, at least once a week). The more positive the attitude toward internet- and mobile-based interventions (r=0.260; P=.004) and the more positive the outcome expectation (r=0.236; P=.009), the more frequently the self-help smartphone app was used. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the self-help smartphone app MCT & More was demonstrated among students with depressive symptoms compared with a wait-list control group. The app could be offered regularly as a low-threshold intervention to enhance students’ health. Trial Registration: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00020941; https://tinyurl.com/pr84w6erJMIR mHealth and uHealth2291-5222https://mhealth.jmir.org/2021/7/e26498;http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/26498;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3425571110.2196/26498DepressionQuestionnaire-9 depressionSelf-esteemRosenberg Self-esteem ScaleNANANANANANANANA400Students4Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
1995NOMiscellaneousIntroducing mindfulness and compassion-based interventions to improve verbal creativity in students of clinical and health psychology2021Bellosta-Batalla M,Cebolla A,Pérez-Blasco J,Moya-Albiol LPsychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and PracticeObjectives: In the field of psychotherapy, verbal creativity has been suggested as an important aspect in psychotherapists’ training. In the present study, the effects of a mindfulness and compassion-based intervention (MCBI) on verbal creativity are analysed in students of clinical and health psychology (N = 90). Design: Students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 37), in which an MCBI was applied, and a waiting list group (n = 26) with no intervention. We also assessed a non-randomized active control group (n = 27), in which students received training in basic psychotherapy skills. Methods: Verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility, and originality) was evaluated in a pre-, post-, and follow-up assessment. Results: Results indicated a significant increase in fluency (p =.001, d =.64), flexibility (p =.017, d =.67), and originality (p =.004, d =.72) in the experimental group, relative to the waiting list group, in the post-assessment. Fluency (p =.010, d =.64) and flexibility (p =.033, d =.62) were also found to be higher in the follow-up assessment. In addition, results indicated a significant increase in flexibility (p =.034, d =.74) in the experimental group, relative to the active control group, in the follow-up assessment. Conclusions: Introducing MCBI in the university education of psychotherapists seems to be a useful strategy to improve their verbal creativity, which could positively influence their ability to explore and appropriately respond to their patients’ needs. Practitioner points: Mindfulness and compassion-based interventions (MCBIs) could be a useful strategy to improve verbal creativity in the university education of psychotherapists. After the MCBI, students of clinical and health psychology increased the number of ideas they produced when facing a specific situation, as well as their variety and originality.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd2044-8341http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/PAPT.12329;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3358628310.1111/PAPT.12329CreativityNAVerbal creativityNANANANANANANANANA90Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studySpain
2005NOJournal ArticleThe Impact of Dosage on a Mindfulness Intervention With First-Year College Students2021Bambacus ES,Conley AHJournal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & PracticeWhile mindfulness intervention research is prevalent, it is limited in (1) relation to college students’ grade point average (GPA) and retention and (2) minimum dosage recommended for the intervent...SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA1541-4167https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/15210251211041695;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1521025121104169510.1177/15210251211041695& PerformanceGrade point average (GPA)NANANANANANANANANANA248StudentsNAQuasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2014NOJournal ArticleFrequency of Self-reported Unpleasant Events and Harm in a Mindfulness-Based Program in Two General Population Samples2021Baer R,Crane C,Montero-Marin J,Phillips A,Taylor L,Tickell A,Kuyken W,Allwood M,Auckland L,Brett D,Casey T,Wilde K,Farley ER,Fletcher K,Kappleman N,Laws S,Lord L,Medlicott E,Palmer L,Petit A,Pryor-Nitsch I,Radley L,Raja A,Shackleford J,Sonley A,Warriner L,Williams M,Bennett M,Dalgleish T,Dunning D,Griffiths K,Ford T,Knight R,Vainre M,Ahmed S,Blakemore SJ,Foulkes L,Griffin C,Leung J,Nuthall E,Sakhardande A,Ukoumunne OC,Ball S,Byford S,Ganguli P,Greenberg M,Viner R,Parker J,Pi-Sunyer BP,Wilde S,Wainman BMindfulnessObjectives: Evidence-based mindfulness programs have well-established benefits, but the potential for harmful effects is understudied. We explored the frequency and severity of unpleasant experiences and harm in two nonclinical samples participating in an adaptation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for the general population. Methods: Study 1 included 84 schoolteachers; study 2 included 74 university students. Both studies were uncontrolled. Participants completed self-report questionnaires about psychological symptoms before and after the 8-week mindfulness course. After the course, they responded to a survey designed for this study that included Likert ratings and free-text questions about unpleasant experiences and harm. All data were collected online. Results: In both samples, about two-thirds of participants reported unpleasant experiences associated with mindfulness practice during the course. Most participants (85–92%) rated these experiences as not at all or somewhat upsetting; some indicated that difficult experiences led to important learning or were beneficial in some way. The proportion of participants reporting harm from the mindfulness course ranged from 3 to 7%. The proportion showing reliable deterioration on symptom questionnaires ranged from 2 to 7%. Those reporting harm and those showing reliable deterioration on questionnaires were largely separate subgroups; only one participant fell in both. Conclusions: Findings highlight the need for mindfulness teachers to manage expectations about benefits and difficulties that may occur in mindfulness-based programs and to work skilfully with participants experiencing difficulties. Experiences of harm may not be captured by symptom questionnaires and should be explicitly assessed in other ways.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-020-01547-810.1007/S12671-020-01547-8(- Unpleasant experiences and harm)NANANANANANANANANANANA74Students8Quasi-experimental pre-post testQuasi-experimental studyNA
2020NAMiscellaneousMejora de los niveles de atención y estrés en los estudiantes a través de un programa de intervención Mindfulness2021Baena-Extremera A,del Mar Ortiz-Camacho M,Sánchez AM,Granero-Gallegos ARevista de PsicodidácticaMindfulness is the quality of being conscious and aware of the present moment harmonizing mind and body. This study presents a six-week intervention program carried out in four educational establishments in Granada with 5th and 6th grade primary school students and 1st, 2nd and 3rd year secondary school students. The aim was to find out whether Mindfulness has positive effects in terms of improving students’ attention and reducing stress. The samples were 320 students; a quasi-experimental design was used. We collected socio-demographic and family data and carried out a pre-test to measure the attention variable by means of the d2 questionnaire and the stress variable with the Inventory Questionnaire of Childhood Stress. Following the intervention, we carried out a post-test using the same instruments. A mixed linear model was used to study the effects of the Mindfulness program. The results show that applying a Mindfulness program improves attention and reduces stress in these students, with differences by sex, school- and ages.Elsevier1136-1034http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.PSICOD.2020.12.00210.1016/J.PSICOD.2020.12.002NANANANANANANANANANANANANANASampleNA NA
2030NAJournal ArticleResponse to: ‘Mindfulness–based mobile app reduces anxiety and increases self-compassion in healthcare students: A randomised controlled trial’2021Babu SMedical TeacherNATaylor and Francis Ltd.1466-187Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2021.1914324;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3388640610.1080/0142159X.2021.1914324NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2040NAJournal ArticleEvaluating a Mindfulness-Based Intervention to Improve Academic Engagement2021Axelrod MI,Santagata MLJournal of Applied School PsychologyThe current study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a school-based mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) on the classroom academic engagement of three elementary school students. Specif...Routledge1537-7911https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/15377903.2021.1941472;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15377903.2021.194147210.1080/15377903.2021.1941472NANANANANANANANANANANANANANASampleNA NA
2055NOJournal ArticleEffectiveness of Mindfulness in business education: Evidence from a controlled experiment2021Asthana ANThe International Journal of Management EducationMindfulness has evolved into a four billion dollar industry and has inevitably attracted attention of businesses and business schools. Scholars in the fields of business tend to agree that psychological and pedagogic assertions in the field of mindfulness can be grounded within the context of cutting-edge theories and findings within Organisation Science and Education Science. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of mindfulness on learning of business analysis and decision making which is a staple in MBA programmes of business schools across the world. Business schools use case study method for teaching business analysis and decision making which engages the students in real-world experiences in a controlled manner and according to Experiential Learning theory increases self-efficacy. In a randomised controlled experiment, 293 MBA students of four business schools participated. The intervention group received a standardised mindfulness training of 20 weeks as a consequence of which their mindfulness score on Mindful Attention Awareness Scale increased significantly while the stress level declined. The study found that increase in mindfulness is a highly significant predictor of increase in the marks obtained by the students in business case study tests and that stress mediates between mindfulness and the marks obtained.Elsevier1472-8117http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.IJME.2021.10049210.1016/J.IJME.2021.100492Mindfulness levelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Business analysis and decision makingKolb’s theoretical frameworkStress ReliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANA320Students20Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Peru
2664NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-Based Interventions for University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials2020Dawson AF,Brown WW,Anderson J,Datta B,Donald JN,Hong K,Allan S,Mole TB,Jones PB,Galante JApplied Psychology: Health and Well-BeingBackground: University students are expressing an increased need for mental health support. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are being integrated into university stress-reduction programmes globally. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing MBI effects on university students’ mental and physical health. Methods: We searched nine databases, including grey literature and trial registries. Two independent reviewers extracted data following a prospective public protocol. Results: Fifty-one RCTs were included. In comparison with passive controls, and when measured shortly after intervention completion, MBIs improve distress, anxiety, depression, well-being, rumination, and mindfulness with small to moderate effect sizes, with no benefit found for blood pressure, sleep, life satisfaction, resilience, worry, and thought suppression. Evidence for self-compassion is inconclusive. Effects last beyond three months for distress and mindfulness, with no data on other outcomes. Compared with active control groups, MBIs significantly improve distress and state anxiety, but not mindfulness, depression, well-being, affect, trait anxiety, or emotion regulation. Results were robust to adjustment for multiple testing, but RCTs’ risk of bias is generally high. Moderator analyses did not find differential intervention effects according to intervention duration, delivery mode, or sub-populations. Conclusions: MBIs may be helpful to students but higher-quality research is needed.Wiley-Blackwell1758-0854http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/APHW.12188;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3174395710.1111/APHW.12188DistressNAAnxietyNADepressionNAwell-beingNARuminationNAMindfulness LevelNANAStudentsNASystematic Review and Meta-AnalysisReviewNA
2076YESJournal ArticleThe effectiveness of smartphone compassion training on stress among Swedish university students: A pilot randomized trial2021Andersson C,Bergsten KL,Lilliengren P,Norbäck K,Rask K,Einhorn S,Osika WJournal of Clinical PsychologyObjective: To investigate the effects of a 6-week smartphone compassion training intervention on mental health. Method: Fifty-seven Swedish university students (mean age = 25, SD = 5) reporting high levels of stress were randomized to compassion training (n = 23), mindfulness (n = 19), or waitlist (n = 15). Result: Multilevel models indicated that both compassion and mindfulness training increased self-compassion compared to the waitlist, while only compassion significantly reduced stress. Between-group effect sizes for compassion compared to waitlist were large for both self-compassion (d = 1.61) and stress (d = 0.94). Compassion and mindfulness did not differ significantly, but effect sizes were in favor of compassion. Secondary outcomes indicated positive effects on emotional awareness, while no effect was found for global psychological distress. Conclusions: Our results suggest that compassion training via a smartphone application can improve self-compassion and reduce stress among university students. Future studies in larger clinical samples are warranted.John Wiley and Sons Inc1097-4679http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JCLP.23092;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3324516110.1002/JCLP.23092Self-compassionNAStress reliefNANANANANANANANANA57Students6Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Sweden
2084NOJournal ArticleEducating the mindful design practitioner2021Altay B,Porter NThinking Skills and CreativityMindfulness applications are increasing exponentially across many disciplines. However, mindfulness theory and practice within design pedagogy is relatively scarce. What are the operational concepts and applications of mindfulness for acquiring design skills and ethical awareness? We explore these questions through a theoretical framework and two university-based studies where design students engaged in various mindfulness activities. Results show that meditation practices (formal mindfulness) and adopting a mindful approach to design tasks (informal mindfulness) can facilitate exploratory and creative thinking, increase sensory and spatial awareness, ‘free up’ one's inner critic, and expand students’ empathetic horizons. These outcomes suggest mindfulness training is fruitful for the holistic development of students, supporting them to be truly reflective practitioners who creatively attend to the wellbeing of others and themselves.Elsevier Ltd1871-1871http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.TSC.2021.10084210.1016/J.TSC.2021.100842CreativityNAHeighten spatial, bodily and multisensory awarenessNAEnhance compassionNANANANANANANA66Students8Case StudyQualitative StudyUnited Kingdom and Turkey
2104NOJournal ArticleReducing stress, anxiety and depression in undergraduate nursing students: Systematic review2021Aloufi MA,Jarden RJ,Gerdtz MF,Kapp SNurse Education TodayObjective: Undergraduate nursing students may experience high levels of stress, anxiety or depression. This can not only influence their personal wellbeing and academic performance, but also communication with patients during clinical placement and the quality and safety of the healthcare delivered. The objective of the review was to identify interventions that target stress, anxiety or depressed mood in undergraduate nursing students during their undergraduate course. Review method: A quantitative systematic review, guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, was conducted. The review considered studies that included undergraduate nurses, and which evaluated interventions targeting stress, anxiety and depressed mood. The review included experimental studies published in English from 2008 to 2018. A tabulated and narrative summary was utilised to present the results. Results: A total of 1579 studies were identified following a systematic search and 931 studies were screened by title and abstract. A total of 44 studies were critically appraised resulting in 22 studies for inclusion in the systematic review. The studies focused on stress (10 studies), anxiety (14 studies) and depression (7 studies). The majority of the studies (18 of 22) reported a statistically significant reduction in the stress, anxiety or depression experienced by nursing students who participated in interventions targeting these symptoms. Interventions that sought to improve coping management skills, such as mindfulness-based interventions, were most reported. Conclusion: There are a range of effective interventions that target stress, anxiety or depressed mood among nursing students. The quality of the studies reporting these interventions was found to be variable and generally samples were small with limited follow-up. Studies of mindfulness interventions comprised the largest sample sizes, displayed the highest levels of evidence, and transcended stress, anxiety and depressed mood. Future research would benefit from a co-ordinated approach to build the strength of the body of evidence.Churchill Livingstone0260-6917http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.NEDT.2021.104877;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3390589810.1016/J.NEDT.2021.104877Stress reliefNAAnxietyNADepressionNANANANANANANANAStudentsNAQuantitative systematic reviewReviewNA
2090NOJournal ArticleEffects of Mindfulness Training Program on the Impulsivity Among Students with Learning Disabilities2021Alqarni TM,Hammad MAJournal of Educational and Social ResearchIn recent years, many studies showed positive effects of implementing mindfulness practices according to some cognitive and psychical well-being measurements among many participants; especially, adolescents and adults. Few studies appeared on the effectiveness of mindfulness practices for students with learning disabilities. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training programs on the impulsivity levels for participants with learning disabilities in inclusive elementary schools in Saudi Arabia. Thirty participating children with learning disabilities were divided randomly into two equivalent groups (experimental and control groups). Pre-and post-assessment using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11, Patton et al., 1995) were completed before and after the end of mindfulness sessions scheduled for ten weeks. Results indicated that the experimental group of children with learning disabilities significantly reduced their impulsivity in all impulsivity scale domains on the BIS-11. The authors discussed the impact of mindfulness intervention in reducing the impulsive behavior of students with learning disabilities. Finally, implications and recommendations were also noted in this study. Received: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 June 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021Richtmann Publishing Ltd2239-978Xhttps://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/view/12559;http://dx.doi.org/10.36941/jesr-2021-008810.36941/jesr-2021-0088NANANANANANANANANANANANANANASampleQuasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyNA
1115NOJournal ArticleA College First-Year Mindfulness Seminar to Enhance Psychological Well-Being and Cognitive Function2020Tang R,Broderick PC,Bono T,Dvoráková K,Braver TSJournal of Student Affairs Research and PracticeMindfulness training (MT) has shown promise in improving psychological health among college students yet has rarely been evaluated as an addition to the college academic curriculum. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a first-year MT seminar offered to residential students at a selective private university, evaluating its impact on psychological and cognitive functioning in relationship to a comparable positive psychology seminar. The results suggest the potential for first-year programs that promote student well-being.Taylor and Francis Ltd.1949-6605http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19496591.2020.174071910.1080/19496591.2020.1740719Well‑beingThe Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD)& Cognitive FunctionSustained Attention to Response Task (SART) Attention Network Test (ANT) Operation Span Task (OSPAN).NANANANANANANANA111Students14Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2116YESJournal ArticleMindfulness in the foreign language classroom: Influence on academic achievement and awareness2020Zeilhofer LLanguage Teaching ResearchIncorporating mindfulness into education has been linked to improving academic, social and emotional learning. This article describes an investigation of the implementation of meditative practices in a foreign language setting (German). Two classes underwent distinct varieties of meditation: The count-to-ten method and the guided meditation approach, whereas a third class served as a comparison group by not partaking in meditative activities. Meditative practices were implemented for a period of one year and data were collected on students’ academic achievement, measures of mindfulness, and evaluations of their perspectives on meditative practices. Results revealed that classes in the treatment conditions showed marked signs of academic achievement and increased awareness relative to the comparison group. Differences were revealed between the two meditation methods in terms of distinct aspects of mindfulness as measured by the five-facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ). In addition, students showed a positive disposition towards meditative practices in general, which was measured by a new developed instrument: the five spheres of meditation experience survey (FSMES). Results suggest that meditative practices may play a role in designing and developing novel pedagogical practices.SAGE Publications Ltd1477-0954http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136216882093462410.1177/1362168820934624Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Academic achievementNAAwareness Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). NANANANANANA75Students15Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Japan
2125NOMiscellaneousThe effects of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in nursing students: A quasi-experimental study2020Yüksel A,Yılmaz EBNurse Education TodayBackground: Academic and clinical stressors are experienced by most nursing students enrolled in a nursing education program. The students who cannot effectively deal with these stressors experience stress, anxiety and depression. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on mindfulness, depression, anxiety, and stress levels in nursing students. Design: This quasi-experimental study was carried out using a nonrandomized control group pre-test, post-test, and follow up design. Setting: Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aksaray, Turkey. Participants: Eighty-two second-year undergraduate university nursing students. Methods: The group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program was conducted with the experimental group. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were measured at pre- and post- intervention, and at a 4-months follow-up. Results: The post-test mean scores of MAAS of the experimental group were statistically higher than the control group (p =.006). When the mean scores obtained in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up measurements were compared, the mean scores of MAAS increased (p =.000) and stress scores decreased significantly in the experimental group (p =.004). Conclusion: A group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program conducted with nursing students had an effect on students' mindful attention awareness and stress levels. These study results indicate that this program can be used to reduce the levels of stress in nursing students.Churchill Livingstone0260-6917http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.NEDT.2019.104268;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3176587210.1016/J.NEDT.2019.104268AwarenessMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Depression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANANANANANA82Students12Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyTurkey
2130NAJournal ArticleEffects of mindfulness and meaning in life on psychological distress in Chinese university students during the COVID-19 epidemic: A chained mediation model2020Yu Y,Yu Y,Li BAsian Journal of PsychiatryNAElsevier B.V.1876-2026http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.AJP.2020.102211;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3259014210.1016/J.AJP.2020.102211NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2140YESJournal ArticleConsiderations for the incorporation of mindfulness into pharmacy education2020Witry MJ,Murry LT,Ray MECurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and LearningIntroduction: A range of approaches are needed to bolster the mental health and well-being of pharmacists and student pharmacists. Commentary: In recent years, medical and nursing educators have been training students to use mindfulness-oriented meditation (MOM) techniques such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for mental health, wellness, and greater attention and presence. MOM training should be considered for incorporation into pharmacy education. Mindfulness can be included in the pharmacy curriculum in a variety of ways. These include introducing students to the topic didactically, encouraging and facilitating students to take an MBSR course, workshop, or online self-study, and integrating mindfulness through mindful moments during critical educational activities like product verification and communication assessments. Implications: Mindfulness may be a valuable skill for student pharmacists, thus we encourage schools to expose students to the concepts of mindfulness and MOM techniques like MBSR. Additionally, more robust and rigorous research is needed to better understand the effects of MOM in different settings and contexts.Elsevier Inc.1877-1300http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.CPTL.2019.12.007;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3227305810.1016/J.CPTL.2019.12.007Well‑beingNAAttentionNAPresenceNANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2156YESJournal ArticleMindfulness-based strengths practice improves well-being and retention in undergraduates: a preliminary randomized controlled trial2020Wingert JR,Jones JC,Swoap RA,Wingert HMJournal of American College HealthObjectiveWith high rates of mental health concerns on college campuses, effective positive psychology interventions could greatly improve student well-being and academic outcomes. Participants: Wor...Taylor & Francis1940-3208https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2020.1764005;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1764005;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3243299010.1080/07448481.2020.1764005Well‑beingNARetentionNANANANANANANANANA52Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
2165NOJournal ArticleMindfulness Training for Improving Attention Regulation in University Students: Is It Effective? and Do Yoga and Homework Matter?2020Wimmer L,Bellingrath S,von Stockhausen LFrontiers in PsychologyThe present study examined the effects of mindfulness training on attention regulation in university students and whether the potential benefits of implementation are influenced by the yoga component of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and/or by MBI homework practice. In a non-randomized trial with pre- and post-assessments, n = 180 university students were allocated to either mindfulness training (experimental groups), awareness activities (active control group), or no training (passive control group). Mindfulness was taught through two MBIs, one including yoga and the other excluding yoga. Attention regulation was operationalized via behavioral indicators, namely sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and data-driven information processing. With the exception of speed in a cognitive flexibility task, the results indicated no systematic or differential advantage arising from mindfulness training, with or without yoga, regarding the aspects of attention regulation. There was no consistent influence of homework quantity or quality. The implications for mindfulness training in academic contexts are discussed.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2020.0071910.3389/FPSYG.2020.00719Speed in a cognitive flexibility taskPERMA-Profiler is a 23-item& Attention regulationNANANANANANANANANA180Students12Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2176NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-Based Student Training Leads to a Reduction in Physiological Evaluated Stress2020Voss A,Bogdanski M,Langohr B,Albrecht R,Sandbothe MFrontiers in PsychologyBackground and Objective: In today’s fast-paced modern lifestyle, chronic stress has become a serious issue with potential consequences for our physical and mental health. The concept of mindfulness and its derived Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program is considered to be an effective stress management technique for patients as well as for healthy persons. The effects of MBSR interventions on their participants have been subject of previous research, especially with regard to psychological or social science approaches using self-reports and questionnaires. In contrast, medical investigations in this field have been less frequent and often somehow limited, for example, addressing only absolute (discrete) mean values for heart rate or blood pressure. Methods: In this study, we have evaluated a Mindfulness Based Student Training program (MBST) by applying methods of biosignal analysis to examine its impact on the training participants’ autonomic regulation. This intervention program included classical MBSR elements but was adapted to suit the normal daily needs of university students. We obtained the electrocardiogram, finger-pulse plethysmography, and respiration activity from students participating in either the intervention group (IGR, 38 subjects) or a passive control group (CON, 35 subjects) prior to and after 8 weeks of MBST intervention. Results: When comparing various indices from heart rate variability, pulse wave variability, and respiration in linear and nonlinear domains, significant changes in the autonomic regulation were observed for the IGR group after 8 weeks of MBST. Conclusion: The results indicate a reduced stress level exclusively for the intervention participants, and therefore, we assume a health benefit from the MBST program.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2020.0064510.3389/FPSYG.2020.00645Vascular functionBiosignal analysisNANANANANANANANANANA40Students12Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
2184NOJournal ArticlePromoting the Inclusion of Mindfulness and Contemplative Practices in the College Classroom2020Vilvens HL,Frame DL,Owen PCPedagogy in Health Promotion: The Scholarship of Teaching and LearningCollege students may be particularly stressed as they struggle to balance college life, work, family, and relationships, while engaging in career exploration and attempting to find meaning and purp...SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA2373-3802https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2373379920925849;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/237337992092584910.1177/2373379920925849Stress reliefNAAnxietyNANANANANANANANANA33Students15Practitioner action research projectQualitative StudyUSA
2195NOJournal ArticleMindfulness-based psychological interventions for improving mental well-being in medical students and junior doctors2020Turner T,Tee QX,Hasimoglu G,Hewitt J,Trinh D,Shachar J,Sekhar P,Green SCochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsObjectives: This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows:. To assess the impact of psychological interventions with a primary focus on mindfulness on the mental well-being and academic performance of medical students and junior doctors.John Wiley and Sons Ltd1469-493Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD01374010.1002/14651858.CD013740NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANAProtocol for a Cochrane ReviewReviewNA
2206NOJournal ArticleImmune dysregulation among students exposed to exam stress and its mitigation by mindfulness training: findings from an exploratory randomised trial2020Turner L,Galante J,Vainre M,Stochl J,Dufour G,Jones PBScientific ReportsPsychological distress persisting for weeks or more promotes pro-inflammatory immune dysregulation, a risk factor for a range of chronic diseases. We have recently shown that mindfulness training reduces distress among university students. Here we present an exploratory trial to study immune dysregulation in a cohort of students who were exposed to progressively greater stress as the exam period approached, and to explore whether mindfulness training mitigated this dysregulation. Healthy University of Cambridge students were randomised to join an 8-week mindfulness course (N = 27), or to mental health support as usual (N = 27). Psychological distress, immune cell proportions, cytokines, CRP and serum cortisol were measured at baseline and during the exam period. Increased distress was associated with statistically significant increases in the proportion of B cells, regardless of trial arm (*p = 0.027). There were no other associations between any of the measured parameters, distress or mindfulness. Our finding that the proportion of B cells increases with psychological distress supports the findings of other studies. However, we found no evidence that mindfulness training is able to buffer the effects of psychological distress on healthy participants’ immune system. In order to detect these effects, should they exist, larger randomised trials will be required.Nature Research2045-2322http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/S41598-020-62274-7;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3224214510.1038/S41598-020-62274-7& B CellsNANANANANANANANANANANA27Students8Exploratory trialRandomized controlled trial (RCT)United Kingdom
2210NAJournal ArticleThe mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between the cognitive flexibility and irrational performance beliefs of university student-athletes2020Tingaz EOCurrent PsychologyThe present study aims to examine the mediating role of mindfulness in the relationship between the cognitive flexibility and irrational performance beliefs of university student-athletes. 142 student-athletes from Gazi University Faculty of Sports Sciences were included in the study. The Mindfulness Inventory for Sport, the Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory-2 and the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory were used as data collection tools. SPSS 25 was used to examine the relationship between descriptive statistics and variables. CFA, SEM and Bootstrap tests were carried out through AMOS 24. In conclusion, it was observed that non-judgment, which is a sub-dimension of mindfulness, had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between cognitive flexibility and irrational performance beliefs.Springer1936-4733http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-020-00891-110.1007/S12144-020-00891-1NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2225NOJournal ArticleThe role of metacognition in mindfulness interventions with Japanese EFL university students2020Stringer T,Looney KLearning: Research and PracticeThe role of metacognition in learning and academic achievement has been recognised. Outside of education, mindfulness has been shown to enhance metacognition and subsequent outcomes (e.g., in menta...Routledge2373-5090https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23735082.2020.1818806;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23735082.2020.181880610.1080/23735082.2020.1818806& MetacognitionMetacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI)NANANANANANANANANANA37Students15Between-groups designQuasi-experimental studyJapan
2235NOJournal ArticleMindfulness Meditation and Anxiety in Nursing Students2020Stinson C,Curl ED,Hale G,Knight S,Pipkins C,Hall I,White K,Thompson N,Wright CNursing Education PerspectivesThis quasi-experimental study used a convenience sample of nursing students (n = 49) to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation on anxiety. Students participated in mindfulness meditation sessions and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A statistically significant reduction in trait anxiety was found in the intervention group (p =.000); state anxiety decreased but not significantly. In contrast, anxiety increased significantly in the comparison group, but progression was not significantly different between groups. Trait anxiety may decrease with mindfulness meditation.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins1536-5026http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000635;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3216809010.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000635AnxietyState-Trait Anxiety Inventory’s State Anxiety Scale (STAI)NANANANANANANANANANA49Students8Quasi-experimental studyQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2245YESMiscellaneousBrief mindfulness-based training and mindfulness trait attenuate psychological stress in university students: a randomized controlled trial2020Sousa GM,Lima-Araújo GL,Araújo DB,Sousa MBBMC PsychologyBackground: Psychological distress in University settings has grown and became a public health concern. In this context, contemplative practices such as mindfulness have been proposed as a strategy to help students on stress management. Methods: Forty university students (20 female), aged between 18 to 30 years (mean = 24.15; SD = 3.56), with no previous experience with meditation or yoga were recruited at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte and randomized to a mindfulness training (MT) or active control (AC) groups. We analyzed measures of anxiety, affect, stress, as well as state and trait mindfulness in order to evaluate the effects of trait mindfulness and a brief mindful-ness intervention in forty healthy young students. Participants were classified as Low (n = 27, females = 13) or High (n = 13, females = 7) Trait Mindfulness by k-means clustering and compared between them using Wilcoxon sum rank test. Furthermore, the sample was randomly allocated to an AC (n = 20, females = 10) or a MT (n = 20, females = 10) group, and mixed analysis of variance was performed to analyze the effect of interventions. The mechanisms and role of trait mindfulness in the intervention was assessed by a moderated mediation analysis. Results: We found that High Trait individuals have lower anxiety trait, anxiety state and perceived stress levels. Only the MT group reduced their anxiety state and perceived stress after the intervention and increased their state mind-fulness. Both groups reduced negative affect and cortisol, and no change was found in positive affect. Moderated mediation analysis showed that the training-induced change in state mindfulness mediated the increase in positive affect and the decrease in perceived stress and cortisol, regardless of trait mindfulness. For anxiety state the decrease only occurred in individuals with High Trait Mindfulness. Conclusions: Together, these results suggest that higher trait mindfulness is associated with low levels of psychological distress and that a brief mindfulness-based intervention seems to be useful to reduce distress measures in university students.NANAhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00520-x;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00520-x10.1186/s40359-021-00520-xDistressThe State Mindfulness Scale (SMS)NANANANANANANANANANA20Female Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyBrazil
2256NOMiscellaneousPromoting a Healthy Lifestyle through Mindfulness in University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial2020Soriano-Ayala E,Amutio A,Franco C,Mañas INutrientsThe present study explored the effects of a second-generation mindfulness-based intervention known as flow meditation (Meditación-Fluir) in the improvement of healthy life behaviors. A sample of university students (n = 51) in Spain were randomly assigned to a seven-week mindfulness treatment or a waiting list control group. Results showed that compared to the control group, individuals in the mindfulness group demonstrated significant improvements across all outcome measures including healthy eating habits (balanced diet, intake rate, snacking between meals, decrease in consumption by negative emotional states, increased consumption by negative emotional states, amount of consumption, meal times, consumption of low-fat products), tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, and resting habits. There were differences between males and females in some of these variables and a better effect of the treatment was evident in the females of the experimental group when compared to the males. The flow meditation program shows promise for fostering a healthy lifestyle, thus decreasing behaviors related to maladaptive eating, tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption as well as negative rest habits in university students. This mindfulness program could significantly contribute to the treatment of eating disorders and addictions, wherein negative emotional states and impulsivity are central features of the condition.NANAwww.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients;http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu1208245010.3390/nu12082450Eating disordersHealthy Lifestyle Questionnaire. This 12-itemAddictionsLifestyle QuestionnaireNANANANANANANANA51Students7Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Spain
2265YESJournal ArticleUltra-brief breath counting (mindfulness) training promotes recovery from stress-induced alcohol-seeking in student drinkers2020Shuai R,Bakou AE,Hardy L,Hogarth LAddictive BehaviorsThe therapeutic effect of mindfulness interventions on problematic drinking is thought to be driven by increased resilience to the impact of stress on negative mood and alcohol-seeking behaviour, but this claim needs empirical support. To address this hypothesis, the current study tested whether brief training of one component of mindfulness – breath counting – would reduce drinkers’ sensitivity to the effect of noise stress on subjective mood and alcohol-seeking behaviour. Baseline alcohol-seeking was measured by choice to view alcohol versus food thumbnail pictures in 192 student drinkers. Participants then received a 6-minute audio file which either trained breath counting or recited a popular science extract, in separate groups. All participants were then stressed by a loud industrial noise and alcohol-seeking was measured again simultaneously to quantify the change from baseline. Subjective mood was measured after all three stages (baseline, post intervention, post stress test). The breath counting group were instructed to deploy this technique during the stress test. Results showed that the breath counting versus control intervention improved subjective mood relative to baseline, attenuated the worsening of subjective mood produced by stress induction, and accelerated recovery from a stress induced increase in alcohol-seeking behaviour. Exploratory moderation analysis showed that this accelerated recovery from stress induced alcohol-seeking by breath counting was weaker in more alcohol dependent participants. Mindfulness therapies may improve problematic drinking by increasing resilience to stress induced negative mood and alcohol-seeking, as observed in this study. The weaker therapeutic effect of breath counting in more dependent drinkers may reveal limitations to this intervention strategy.Pergamon0306-4603http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.ADDBEH.2019.106141;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3170442910.1016/J.ADDBEH.2019.106141Alcohol consumptionThe adult Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Alcohol Use Short Form (PROMIS;Pilkonis et al., 2016)Problematic drinkingFive factor Drinking Motives Questionnaire RevisedNANANANANANANANA192Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUnited Kingdom
2275YESJournal ArticleEffectiveness of a guided online mindfulness-focused intervention in a student population: Study protocol for a randomised control trial2020Schultchen D,Küchler AM,Schillings C,Weineck F,Karabatsiakis A,Ebert DD,Baumeister H,Pollatos OBMJ OpenBackground Previous studies show that university students experience higher psychological stress than the general population, resulting in increased vulnerability for mental disorders for the student population. Online mindfulness interventions will be delivered to students as a potentially promising and more flexible approach compared to face-to-face interventions with the aim of improving their mental health. This study purposes to investigate the effectiveness of a guided online mindfulness-focused intervention for university students by using both self-reported and psychobiological measures. Methods and analyses In this multicentre, two-armed randomised controlled trial with a parallel design, a guided version of the online mindfulness-focused intervention StudiCare Mindfulness' will be compared with a waitlist control group. In total, 120 participants will be recruited at different universities (of Applied Sciences) in (Neu-) Ulm. Data will be assessed prior to randomisation, after eight weeks (post-intervention) and six months after randomisation (follow-up). The primary outcome measure is mindfulness. The secondary outcome measures include depression, anxiety and stress levels, well-being, interoceptive sensibility, emotion regulation and alexithymia. Psychobiological parameters comprise interoceptive accuracy, hair cortisol and FKBP5 genotype. Sociodemographic variables, treatment expectations, side and adverse side effects, as well as intervention satisfaction and adherence will be assessed. All data analyses will be conducted according to the intention-to-treat principle. Ethics and dissemination All study procedures have been approved by the Ethics Committee of Ulm University (application No. 48/18). The findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number DRKS00014701.BMJ Publishing Group2044-6055http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/BMJOPEN-2019-032775;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3220962110.1136/BMJOPEN-2019-032775Mindfulness levelNADepression, Anxiety, and StressNAWell-beingNAInteroceptive sensibilityNAEmotional regulationNAAlexithymiaNA120Students8Two-armed randomised controlled trialRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Germany
2285NOJournal ArticleA study to assess the effectiveness of mindful meditation on health and academic adjustment problem faced by nursing students in selected colleges of Pune City2020Sarangm A,Kharatm L,Talot S,Joshi S,Chavan RIndian Journal of Forensic Medicine and ToxicologyStress is one of the common problem among students of higher education institutes, it affects health and academic performance as well. Mindful meditation is one of the useful strategy to reduce stress and improves health and academic performance among young population. The objective of the study is assess the effectiveness of mindful meditation on health and academic adjustment problems among 1st year B Sc Nursing students in selected nursing colleges of Pune city. The research design adopted for this study pre-experimental, pre-test post-test design. The study was conducted at selected nursing schools of Pune. Total 60 students selected by purposive sampling. The data collected were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that there are multiple health problems student faces during their first year of college life. The stress which occurs in early academic life causes low academic performances. Mindful meditation found effective on health and academic performances during early academic life hence college should exercise mindful meditation during their induction and orientation period.Institute of Medico-Legal Publications0973-9130http://dx.doi.org/10.37506/IJFMT.V14I4.1224710.37506/IJFMT.V14I4.12247HealthNAAcademic performanceNAImprove psychological functionsNAReduce sufferingNANANANANA60StudentsNAPre-experimental studyPretest–post-test designIndia
2295YESJournal ArticleMindfulness Training: Success in Reducing First Year Health Professional Students’ Study and Exam Related Stress2020Ross SJ,Owens K,Roberts A,Jennings E,Mylrea MHealth Professions EducationPurpose: Students enrolling in high stakes, undergraduate entry, professional programs like medicine, dentistry and pharmacy may struggle to effectively achieve the transition from high school. This often results in high levels of mental distress. Method: The College of Medicine and Dentistry at James Cook University have implemented a health professional self-care program (HPSC) with an aim of helping students recognize stressors and develop coping strategies. The HPSC program has been running for three years in the first year of each of the three courses. The HPSC program was delivered as a series of eight sessions focusing on evidenced based theory with some time for practicing coping strategies. Five-point Likert scale surveys were administered prior to commencing the program and after completion. Results: Across the College, students reported significantly improved abilities to reduce study and exam related stress and develop effective coping skills. These results were more pronounced in students that practiced techniques of mindfulness. Discussion: The HPSC program changed student perceptions in being able to improve their own self-care and reduced study and exam related stress.No longer published by Elsevier2452-3011http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.HPE.2020.04.00110.1016/J.HPE.2020.04.001Stress reliefNAResilienceNACopingNANANANANANANA525Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyAustralia
2305YESMiscellaneousFeasibility of a web-based program for universal prevention of anxiety and depression in university students: An open trial2020Rith-Najarian LR,Chorpita BF,Gong-Guy E,Hammons HR,Chavira DAJournal of American College HealthObjective: To examine the feasibility of a self-guided, Web-based program for universal prevention of anxiety and depression in university students. Participants: University students (n = 651) enrolled in the tested program (March, 2016). Methods: The program delivered eight weeks of mental health skills (e.g., behavioral activation, mindfulness). Data was collected online through an entry survey, weekly check-in surveys, and a post-program feedback survey. Results: Campus-wide recruitment emails were the most encountered recruitment strategy (82%). In terms of adherence, the program was initiated by 73% of students and fully completed by 11% of students. There was some evidence of program acceptability (e.g., 71% of students endorsed the program as “useful”). Common qualitative themes further suggested acceptability for some aspects of the program while also highlighting others for revision. Conclusion: Findings support further development of the online program and recommendations are made for improving the platform before future testing.Routledge1940-3208https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2020.1869749;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1869749/SUPPL_FILE/VACH_A_1869749_SM4174.DOCX10.1080/07448481.2020.1869749/SUPPL_FILE/VACH_A_1869749_SM4174.DOCXAnxietyNAdepressionNANANANANANANANANA651Students8Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2314YESJournal ArticleCollege student veterans' experience with a mindfulness- and acceptance-based mobile app intervention for PTSD: A qualitative study2020Reyes AT,Serafica R,Sojobi AArchives of Psychiatric NursingThis study aimed to explore college student military veterans' experience with a mindfulness- and acceptance-based smartphone app intervention. Upon the 4-week participation in the intervention, 23 student veterans took part in semi-structured interviews. In the thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, three main themes emerged: (1) generating momentum of app use; (2) optimizing the functions and benefits of the app; and (3) resolving to deepen the practice of mindfulness and acceptance. Considering the low engagement rates of several previous app-based studies, our results provide a useful framework for incorporating human feedback and support in enhancing users' engagement with the app.W.B. Saunders0883-9417http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.APNU.2020.09.005;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3328067210.1016/J.APNU.2020.09.005NANANANANANANANANANANANA23Students4Semi-structured interviewsQualitative StudyUSA
2325YESJournal ArticleTesting the acceptability and initial efficacy of a smartphone-app mindfulness intervention for college student veterans with PTSD2020Reyes AT,Bhatta TR,Muthukumar V,Gangozo WJArchives of Psychiatric NursingThis single-arm, pre-post feasibility study evaluated the acceptability and initial efficacy of a mindfulness smartphone-app intervention intended to promote resilience and improve posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among college student military veterans. The app contained mindfulness exercises and meditations based on the acceptance and commitment therapy. Twenty-three student veterans used the app for four weeks. The results showed high levels of perceived satisfaction and usability of the app. Significant changes in resilience, mindfulness, PTSD, experiential avoidance, and rumination were observed. Future research is needed to test the intervention in a randomized controlled trial.W.B. Saunders0883-9417http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.APNU.2020.02.004;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3224893510.1016/J.APNU.2020.02.004ResilienceNAImprove posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)NANANANANANANANANA23Students4Single-arm, pre-post feasibility studyPretest–post-test designUSA
2335NOJournal ArticleDeveloping our students’ level of mindfulness during these unprecedented times2020Reilly PJournal of University Teaching and Learning PracticeThe pandemic has provoked disruptions in students' lives and studies worldwide, which has caused them to feel moderate to high levels of anxiety and stress. Universities have responded by offering online counseling and communicating self-help recommendations via their websites. Curiously, the role that professors could play to reduce this emotional hardship has been ignored in the literature. This instructional paper describes how and why three professors in Mexico include a brief, daily mindful practice in class to help their students cope with the negative emotions that may arise. Psychological and educational research has indicated that the development of mindfulness reduces emotional pain and increases one’s sense of well-being. Importantly, the focused-attention meditation described herein does not require an experienced mediator. A script to guide the practice is being used by the three professors, and could serve as a starting point for willing professors. Educators may also discover that the practice improves academic achievement because it activates executive functions (e.g. inhibitory control; working memory), thereby enhancing cognitive functioning. The paper also presents several practical implications involved with the practice, as well as initial reactions from professors and students.University of Wollongong1449-9789http://dx.doi.org/10.53761/1.17.5.2010.53761/1.17.5.20Well‑beingNAWorking memoryNACognitive functioningNANANANANANANANAStudents7Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyMexico
2345NOJournal ArticleThe association between mindfulness and health promotion in undergraduate nursing students: A serial multiple mediator analysis2020Rababah JA,Al-Hammouri MM,Drew BLJournal of Advanced NursingAim: This study was conducted to examine the association between mindfulness and health promotion among undergraduate nursing students and explore the mediation effect of certain factors (perceived stress, depressive symptoms, self-care agency, and impulsivity) on this relationship. Design: Cross-sectional quantitative design. Methods: A total of 195 undergraduate nursing students from a public university in Jordan participated in this study. A demographic questionnaire was used in addition to using well-established, validated tools to measure health promotion, mindfulness, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, and self-care agency. Data were collected between March and November 2018. Data were analysed using PROCESS macros. Results: The direct association between mindfulness and health promotion was positive but not statistically significant. Simple mediation analysis showed that perceived stress is the only statistically significant mediator (effect = 0.03; 95% CI: LL = 0.008, UL = 0.057). The serial multiple mediator analyses revealed that three combinations of the mediators made the mindfulness effect on health promotion statistically significant; perceived stress and self-care agency (effect = −0.01, 95% CI: LL = −0.022, UL = −0.01); depressive symptoms and self-care agency (effect = 0.016, 95% CI: LL = 0.006, UL = 0.03); and perceived stress with depressive symptoms and self-care agency (effect = 0.006, 95% CI: LL = 0.002, UL = 0.013). Conclusions: The results of this study add to the literature evidence concerning the mediation role of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and self-care agency on the relationship between mindfulness and health promotion among nursing students. Impact: This study examined the complex relationship between mindfulness and health promotion. There is a mediation effect of nursing students’ perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and self-care agency on the relationship between mindfulness and health promotion. Researchers interested in designing mindfulness-based interventions to optimize health promotion of nursing students could benefit from the findings of this study.Blackwell Publishing Ltd1365-2648http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/JAN.14556;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3300986710.1111/JAN.14556HealthThe HPLP II is a 52-itemMindfulness LevelThe MAAS is a 15-item tool (Brown & Ryan, 2003)Perceived stressPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)DepressionThe CESD-RImpulsivityThe BIS-11 (Patton, Stanford, & Barrat, 1995)Self-careThe ASAS-R195StudentsNACross-sectional quantitative designSingle assessmentJordan
2355NOJournal ArticleComparing the Psychological Effects of Meditation- and Breathing-Focused Yoga Practice in Undergraduate Students2020Qi X,Tong J,Chen S,He Z,Zhu XFrontiers in PsychologyObjectives: The present study aimed to compare the psychological effects of meditation- and breathing-focused yoga practice in undergraduate students. Methods: A 12-weeks yoga intervention was conducted among a group of undergraduate students enrolled in four yoga classes at an academically prestigious university in Beijing, China. Four classes were randomized to meditation-focused yoga or breathing-focused yoga. A total of 86 participants finished surveys before and after the 12-weeks intervention, measuring work intention, mindfulness, and perceived stress. The repeated-measure multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) followed by univariate analyses were conducted to examine the differences in work intention, mindfulness, and stress between the two yoga intervention groups over the semester, after controlling for age and gender. Results: The repeated-measure MANCOVA revealed significant group differences with a median effect size [Wilks’ lambda, Λ = 0.90, F(3, 80) = 3.10, p = 0.031, η2 = 0.104]. Subsequent univariate analyses showed that students in the breathing-focused yoga group had significant higher work intentions [F(1, 82) = 5.22; p = 0.025; η2p = 0.060] and mindfulness [F(1, 82) = 6.33; p = 0.014; η2p = 0.072] but marginally lower stress [F(1, 82) = 4.20; p = 0.044; η2p = 0.049] than students in the meditation-focused yoga group. Conclusion: Yoga practice with a focus on breathing is more effective than that with a focus on meditation for undergraduates to retain energy for work, keep attention and awareness, and reduce stress.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2020.56015210.3389/FPSYG.2020.560152AttentionNAAwarnessNANANANANANANANANA120Students12Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyChina
2364noJournal ArticlePiloting a mindfulness-based intervention to veterinary students: Learning and recommendations2020Pontin EE,Hanna J,Senior AJournal of Veterinary Medical EducationVeterinary students experience high levels of psychological distress including anxiety, stress, perceived stress and depression. The inability to cope with the demands of veterinary training has personal and professional consequences. Existing evidence shows that mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) can reduce stress in students, but more research on how MBIs are introduced into the veterinary curriculum is required. The first aim of the pilot study was to design and deliver a bespoke MBI to third-year veterinary students at the University of Liverpool Institute of Veterinary Science. The second aim was to gain feedback from those taking part, thus using their experiences to explore the challenges of introducing an MBI into a veterinary curriculum. By doing this, we aim to reflect and learn for future interventions. Qualitative feedback provided by participants of the MBI focus group was analyzed using thematic analysis and organized into two main themes: (1) "Taking Part in the MBI and Beyond-What it Was Like and What Has the MBI Done for Me?"and (2) "Mindfulness for Veterinary Students-Reflections, Challenges, and Making it Happen."Experiences and outcomes of the MBI were positive. However, implementation into the veterinary curriculum was found to be challenging. This pilot study provides clear recommendations to support the future integration and delivery of MBIs into a veterinary curriculum.University of Toronto Press Inc.0748-321Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3138/JVME.0618-076R;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3119463210.3138/JVME.0618-076RNANANANANANANANANANANANA120Students4Pilot studyPilot studyUSA
2375NOJournal ArticleManaging student workload in clinical simulation: A mindfulness-based intervention2020Pollard C,McKendrick-Calder LA,Shumka C,McDonald M,Carlson SBMJ Simulation and Technology Enhanced LearningBackground Simulation places multiple simultaneous demands on participants. It is well documented in the literature that many participants feel performance stress, anxiety or other emotions while participating in simulation activities. These feelings and other stressors or distractions may impact participant ability to engage in simulation. The use of mindfulness has been proven to enhance performance in other contexts and we wondered if including a mindful moments activity in the traditional prebrief would change the participants perceived workload demands. Method Using a fourth-year undergraduate nursing course with an intense simulation requirement we were able to compare a control group to an intervention group who was exposed to this mindful moment activity. All participants completed the same simulations. Postsimulation event, all participants completed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Learning Index which measures mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, effort, performance and frustration. Our convenience sample consisted of 107 nursing students (86 treatment group, 21 control group) who participated in 411 simulations for this study. Results The control group experienced significantly different perceived workload demands in two domains (temporal and effort). Conclusion It is possible to manipulate participants' perceived workload in simulation learning experiences. More research is needed to determine optimal participant demand levels. We continue in our practices to use this technique and are currently expanding it to use in other high stress situations such as before examinations.BMJ Publishing Group2056-6697http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/BMJSTEL-2019-00049910.1136/BMJSTEL-2019-000499Perceived workloadTemporal Demands SubscaleNANANANANANANANANANA107Students1Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2380NAJournal ArticlePersonality and nonjudging make you happier: Contribution of the Five-Factor Model, mindfulness facets and a mindfulness intervention to subjective well-being2020Ortet G,Pinazo D,Walker D,Gallego S,Mezquita L,Ibáñez MIPLoS ONEMindful individuals are able to acknowledge mind wandering and live in the present moment in a nonjudgmental way. Previous studies have found that both mind wandering and mindfulness are associated with subjective well-being. However, the main predictor of happiness is personality; more specifically, happier people are emotionally stable and extraverted. The present study aimed to explore the contribution of the five factors of personality, dispositional mindfulness facets and a mindfulness intervention to happiness. A sample of 372 university students was assessed with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, and another sample of 217 community adults answered the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire. Both samples, 589 participants in all, completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Furthermore, 55 participants from the general population sample took a 6-week training course in meditation and developing mindfulness. The regression analyses showed that emotional stability and extraversion traits were the strongest predictors of subjective well-being. Nonetheless, the nonjudging facet, which is nonevaluative/ acceptance awareness of thoughts and feelings, still remained a significant predictor of happiness when personality was accounted for. Finally, mindfulness training did not increase subjective well-being. Being nonjudgmental of one's inner thoughts, feelings and sensations contributes to happiness even when personality is taken into account. Accordingly, it seems reasonable that mindfulness training that intends to improve subjective well-being should focus on noticing thoughts without judging them.Public Library of Science1932-6203http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0228655;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3201779110.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0228655NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2396NOMiscellaneousEffects of a Required Large-Group Mindfulness Meditation Course on First-Year Medical Students’ Mental Health and Quality of Life: a Randomized Controlled Trial2020Neto AD,Lucchetti AL,da Silva Ezequiel O,Lucchetti GJournal of General Internal MedicineBackground: Teaching mindfulness techniques has been used in the attempt to prevent mental health problems in medical students. Although it has already shown promising results when offered to volunteers, the use as a required strategy is still controversial. Objectives: To verify the efficacy of teaching mindfulness techniques to large groups when made part of a required discipline at the beginning of medical training. Design: Randomized controlled trial Participants: First-year medical students at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil Method: Students were randomized into two groups: an intervention group (receiving a 6-week mindfulness protocol) and a control group (given a 6-week course containing organizational aspects of the medical school). Main Measures: Intervention and control groups were compared on the levels of quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref), stress, anxiety and depression (DASS 21) and the facets of mindfulness (FFMQ) at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results: A total of 141 students were included in the study, 70 in the intervention group and 71 in the control group. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups in all mental health, quality of life, and FFMQ scores (Cohen’s d = 0.01 to 0.14). Likewise, no significant gains in mental health measures, quality of life, and FFMQ were identified in the intervention group when compared with the control group (Cohen’s d = 0.02 to 0.33). Conclusions: The incorporation of a required mindfulness course for large groups in the curriculum during the first semester of medical training was not associated with an improvement on medical students’ mental health and quality of life. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT03132597.Springer1525-1497http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S11606-019-05284-0;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3145203810.1007/S11606-019-05284-0Depression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Life QualityHOQOL-BREFWorld Health Organization Qualityof Life:Mindfulness LevelFive Facets of Mindfulness (FFMQ-BR)NANANANANANA141Students6Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Brazil
2404NOJournal ArticleA Survey on Effects of Various Meditation Interventions on Overall Performance of College Students2020Nargundkar S,Manage P,Desai VProceedings of B-HTC 2020 - 1st IEEE Bangalore Humanitarian Technology ConferenceStudents have to surmount innumerable difficulties during their academic paths such as time management, prioritizing various tasks, health conditions, social problems, relationships, sleep difficulties which can sometimes lead to depression. This paper surveys various studies analyzing meditation effects on parameters such as stress, anxiety, attention on various scales using qualitative techniques such as questionnaires; as well as quantitative studies employing EEG to analyze the effect of different meditation types on overall performance of the college student community. From this comprehensive survey, it can be concluded that out of the many forms of meditation, mindfulness meditation and transcendental meditation are observed to have profound effects on the physical as well as mental well being of the students thus drastically improving their efficiency and academic performance.Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.NAhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1109/B-HTC50970.2020.929785910.1109/B-HTC50970.2020.9297859EfficiencyNAAcademic performanceNAStress ReliefNAanxietyNAAttentionNANANANANANASurveySingle assessmentNA
2410NAMiscellaneousCorrection: Effectiveness of an 8-Week Web-Based Mindfulness Virtual Community Intervention for University Students on Symptoms of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial2020Morr CE,Ritvo P,Ahmad F,Moineddin RJMIR Ment Health 2020;7(9):e24131 https://mental. jmir. org/2020/9/e24131In “Effectiveness of an 8-Week Web-Based Mindfulness Virtual Community Intervention for University Students on Symptoms of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial” (JMIR Ment Health 2020;7(7):e18595) the authors noted two errors. Member names of the group author “MVC Team” were not added to the PubMed listing of this article at the time of publishing. All member names have now been added as collaborators on the PubMed listing, as follows: Sahir Abbas, Yvonne Bohr, Manuela Ferrari, Wai Lun Alan Fung, Louise Hartley, Amin Mawani, Kwame McKenzie, Jan E Odai. As well, MVC Team was incorrectly noted as having contributed equally. This note has been removed from MVC Team. Only Christo El Morr, Paul Ritvo, and Farah Ahmad contributed equally. The correction will appear in the online version of the paper on the JMIR Publications website on September 30, 2020, together with the publication of this correction notice. Because this was made after submission to PubMed, PubMed Central, and other full-text repositories, the corrected article has also been resubmitted to those repositories.JMIR Mental Health2368-7959https://mental.jmir.org/2020/9/e24131;http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/2413110.2196/24131NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2426YESMiscellaneousEffectiveness of an 8-Week Web-Based Mindfulness Virtual Community Intervention for University Students on Symptoms of Stress, Anxiety, and Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial2020Morr CE,Ritvo P,Ahmad F,Moineddin RJMIR Ment Health 2020;7(7):e18595 https://mental. jmir. org/2020/7/e18595Background: A student mental health crisis is increasingly acknowledged and will only intensify with the COVID-19 crisis. Given accessibility of methods with demonstrated efficacy in reducing depression and anxiety (eg, mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT]) and limitations imposed by geographic obstructions and localized expertise, web-based alternatives have become vehicles for scaled-up delivery of benefits at modest cost. Mindfulness Virtual Community (MVC), a web-based program informed by CBT constructs and featuring online videos, discussion forums, and videoconferencing, was developed to target depression, anxiety, and experiences of excess stress among university students. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an 8-week web-based mindfulness and CBT program in reducing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress (primary outcomes) and increasing mindfulness (secondary outcome) within a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with undergraduate students at a large Canadian university. Methods: An RCT was designed to assess undergraduate students (n=160) who were randomly allocated to a web-based guided mindfulness–CBT condition (n=80) or to a waitlist control (WLC) condition (n=80). The 8-week intervention consisted of a web-based platform comprising (1) 12 video-based modules with psychoeducation on students’ preidentified life challenges and applied mindfulness practice; (2) anonymous peer-to-peer discussion forums; and (3) anonymous, group-based, professionally guided 20-minute live videoconferences. The outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and mindfulness) were measured via an online survey at baseline and at 8 weeks postintervention using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF). Analyses employed generalized estimation equation methods with AR(1) covariance structures and were adjusted for possible covariates (gender, age, country of birth, ethnicity, English as first language, paid work, unpaid work, relationship status, physical exercise, self-rated health, and access to private mental health counseling). Results: Of the 159 students who provided T1 data, 32 were males and 125 were females with a mean age of 22.55 years. Participants in the MVC (n=79) and WLC (n=80) groups were similar in sociodemographic characteristics at T1 with the exception of gender and weekly hours of unpaid volunteer work. At postintervention follow-up, according to the adjusted comparisons, there were statistically significant between-group reductions in depression scores (β=–2.21, P=.01) and anxiety scores (β=–4.82, P=.006), and a significant increase in mindfulness scores (β=4.84, P=.02) compared with the WLC group. There were no statistically significant differences in perceived stress for MVC (β=.64, P=.48) compared with WLC. Conclusions: With the MVC intervention, there were significantly reduced depression and anxiety symptoms but no significant effect on perceived stress. Online mindfulness interventions can be effective in addressing common mental health conditions among postsecondary populations on a large scale, simultaneously reducing the current burden on traditional counseling services. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN12249616; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12249616JMIR Mental Health2368-7959https://mental.jmir.org/2020/7/e18595;http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18595;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3255438010.2196/18595DepressionPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)AnxietyThe Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)Mindfulness LevelFive Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire Short Form (FFMQ-SF)NANANANANANA160Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Canada
2434YESJournal ArticleDesign of a Mindfulness Virtual Community: A focus-group analysis2020Morr CE,Maule C,Ashfaq I,Ritvo P,Ahmad FHealth Informatics JournalMental illnesses are on the rise on campuses worldwide. There is a need for a scalable and economically sound innovation to address these mental health challenges. The aim of this study was to explore university students' needs and concerns in relation to an online mental health virtual community. Eight focus groups (N = 72, 55.6% female) were conducted with university students aged 18-47 (mean = 23.38, SD = 5.82) years. Participants were asked about their views in relation to online mental health platform. Three major themes and subthemes emerged: (1) perceived concerns: potential loss of personal encounter and relationships, fear of cyber bullying, engagement challenge, and privacy and distraction; (2) perceived advantages: anonymity and privacy, convenience and flexibility, filling a gap, and togetherness; and (3) desired features: user-centered design, practical trustworthy support, and online moderation. The analysis informed design features for a mindfulness virtual community.NANAhttps://doi.org/10.1177/1460458219884840;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146045821988484010.1177/1460458219884840NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANAFocus groupsQualitative StudyCanada
2444YESJournal ArticleDetermining the feasibility and effectiveness of brief online mindfulness training for rural medical students: A pilot study2020Moore S,Barbour R,Ngo H,Sinclair C,Chambers R,Auret K,Hassed C,Playford DBMC Medical EducationBackground: We sought to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a mindfulness training program, delivered online to medical students at a Rural Clinical School. Methods: An 8-week online training program was delivered to penultimate-year medical students at an Australian Rural Clinical School during 2016. Using a mixed methods approach, we measured the frequency and duration of participants' mindfulness meditation practice, and assessed changes in their perceived stress, self-compassion and compassion levels, as well as personal and professional attitudes and behaviours. Results: Forty-seven participants were recruited to the study. 50% of participants were practising mindfulness meditation at least weekly by the end of the 8-week program, and 32% reported practising at least weekly 4 months following completion of the intervention. There was a statistically significant reduction in participants' perceived stress levels and a significant increase in self-compassion at 4-month follow-up. Participants reported insights about the personal and professional impact of mindfulness meditation training as well as barriers to practice. Conclusions: The results provide preliminary evidence that online training in mindfulness meditation can be associated with reduced stress and increased self-compassion in rural medical students. More rigorous research is required to establish concrete measures of feasibility of a mindfulness meditation program.BioMed Central Ltd.1472-6920http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S12909-020-02015-6;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3225275010.1186/S12909-020-02015-6Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Self-compassionNANANANANANANANANA47Students8Pilot studyPilot studyAustralia
2455NOJournal ArticleMindfulness training for a college team: Feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness from within an athletic department2020Minkler TO,Glass CR,Hut MJournal of Applied Sport PsychologyMindfulness-based interventions for athletes—including Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE)—have demonstrated promising results. While initial studies of MSPE have found improvements in man...Routledge1533-1571https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10413200.2020.1739169;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2020.173916910.1080/10413200.2020.1739169FlowShort Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (S DFS-2)FlowCore Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (C DFS-2)AnxietySport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2)NANANANANANA30Students6Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2465NOJournal ArticleIntroducing Mindful Pause Practice in Sonography Education: A Strategy to Improve Classroom Presence2020Michael K,Anderson S,Bagley J,Ellingson S,Sayles H,White R,Custer TJournal of Diagnostic Medical SonographyObjective: The practice of mindfulness has many reported benefits. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate the effect of a three-minute, instructor-led Mindful Pause Practice (MPP) in the sonography classroom over a two-semester period. Methods: Participants were students enrolled in programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs from four universities. Instructors provided MPP, and then students completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Results: A statistically significant increase in mindfulness as was seen from pre- to poststudy (3.3 vs. 3.9, P 70%) and reported improved classroom attention and awareness (>78%). Qualitative themes of stress reduction/relaxation, improved focus/attention, and self-care were noted each semester. Self-directed MPP outside the classroom was low but did improve over time. Conclusion: The addition of a short MPP to sonography classes has positive benefits and improves student mindfulness. These findings support current literature on classroom mindfulness and add information specific to sonography education.SAGE Publications Inc.1552-5430http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/875647932091485410.1177/8756479320914854Mindfulness levelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Classroom attentionNAAwarenessNANANANANANANA94Students16Mixed-methods study - Pre and post testMixed MethodUSA
2474NOJournal ArticlePresent-Moment Awareness and the Prosocial Classroom: Educators’ Lived Experience of Mindfulness2020Mackenzie ER,Fegley S,Stutesman M,Mills JMindfulnessObjectives: This study seeks to better understand the lived experience of teachers who participate in mindfulness training and its effects on their classrooms by evaluating a mindfulness-based teacher professional development curriculum. Methods: Eighty teachers and other school staff completed an 8-week mindfulness training program; pre- and post-test scales were administered, along with individual exit interviews and focus groups. This study focuses mainly on the qualitative findings and one subset of the quantitative findings (the Time Management Stress Subscale in the Teacher Stress Inventory). Results: Teachers described their experience of slowing, pausing, and stopping as a key component of greater social-emotional competence in the classroom. The findings add to what we already know about how mindfulness skills empower teachers to respond to classroom pressures in ways that improve classroom culture for the benefit of both educators and students. Conclusions: Cultivating present-moment awareness through mindfulness training may improve the social-emotional competence of educators and support the prosocial classroom. More research is needed to determine if helping educators change their relationship to time may be an important key to accessing greater levels of awareness that allow for the development of mind states that form the basis of the prosocial classroom.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-020-01483-710.1007/S12671-020-01483-7Social-emotional competence in the classroom.NASkills to respond to classroom pressuresNANANANANANANANANA80Teachers8Qualitative with pre and postestQualitative StudyUSA
2486NOJournal ArticleComparative Effectiveness of Mind-Body Exercise Versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for College Students with Problematic Smartphone Use: A Randomized Controlled Trial2020Lu C,Zou L,Becker B,Griffiths MD,Yu Q,Chen ST,Demetrovics Z,Jiao C,Chi X,Chen A,Yeung A,Liu S,Zhang YInternational Journal of Mental Health PromotionPurpose: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of mind-body exercise (ME) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on addiction level and psychological well-being among college students with problematic smartphone use (PSU). Methods: A 12-week randomized controlled study was carried out at a university in central China. A total of 95 PSU college students who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to a ME group (ME, n = 31), CBT group (CBT, n = 30), or control group (CG, n = 34). Both ME intervention and CBT, twice per week for 90 min per session, lasting for 12 weeks were administered by a certified therapist respectively. Participants in the CG group were asked to maintain their original lifestyle. Results: A significant reduction in addiction level (p < 0.001 for ME vs. CBT; p < 0.001 for ME vs. CG), loneliness (p < 0.001 for ME vs. CG), anxiety (p < 0.001 for ME vs. CG; p < 0.001 for CBT vs. CG) was found. Only significant stress reduction was observed in ME and CBT between baseline and Week 12 (ps < 0.001). Conclusions: ME and CBT (mainstream psychotherapy) may effectively overcome PSU of college students, and reduced the level of smartphone addiction, loneliness, anxiety, and stress. Furthermore, as a culture-specific, low-cost, and readily accessible training program with multiple components (gentle movement, anatomic alignment, mental focus, deep breathing, and meditative state of mind that is similar to mindfulness emphasizing noncompetitive, present-moment, and nonjudgmental introspective component), ME seems to be superior to CBT in terms of PSU.Tech Science Press1462-3730https://www.techscience.com/IJMHP/v22n4/40887;http://dx.doi.org/10.32604/IJMHP.2020.01441910.32604/IJMHP.2020.014419Mobile addictionMobile Phone Addiction Index (Chineserevision LonelinessULS-8 Loneliness ScaleAnxietySelf-Rating Anxiety Scale (SRAS)NANANANANANA95Students12Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)China
2494NoJournal ArticleEffects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, depression, stress, and mindfulness in nursing students: A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials2020Li YF,Sun WX,Sun XJ,Sun J,Yang DM,Jia BL,Yuan BFrontiers of NursingThe aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation (MM) on anxiety, depression, stress and mindfulness in nursing students. A comprehensive search and screening procedures were conducted to locate all MM interventions implemented with nursing students. For randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in accordance with the inclusion criteria, a search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), China Biology Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang. Databases were retrieved from inception through August 2018. Additional studies were identified through hand searches and Internet searches. Two reviewers collected relevant data of eligible articles according to the data extraction tables. Based on Cochrane Handbook, critical appraisal of the methodological quality was assessed by two other reviewers. An Excel form was used to extract main characteristics of included RCTs. Meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) were carried out using software RevMan 5.3 and TSA 0.9. Five RCTs with 257 nursing students were included. Only two studies were assessed as high quality and three studies were evaluated as moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed that, comparing with the control group, MM could significantly improve anxiety (SMD =-0.45, 95% CI-0.73 to-0.17, P = 0.001) and stress (SMD =-0.69, 95% CI-0.97 to-0.40, P < 0.001). TSA results confirmed that the outcome of the merger is credible. It could also significantly improve depression level of nursing students after 8 weeks intervention duration (SMD =-0.70, 95% CI-1.14 to-0.26, P = 0.002). However, there was no beneficial effect on depression level of nursing students with 1 week intervention duration (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI-0.42 to 0.59, P = 0.74) and its effects on mindfulness level of nursing students also did not show statistical significance (SMD = 0.37, 95% CI-0.04 to 0.77, P = 0.07). No definitive conclusions were drawn from the TSA. The results of this meta-analysis indicated that MM could effectively reduce the level of anxiety and stress of nursing students. TSA confirmed that the results of meta-analysis are credible. For depression, it could also significantly improve depression of nursing students with 8 weeks intervention, but there was no significant effect on nursing students with 1 week intervention duration. There was also no beneficial effect on mindfulness level of nursing students. However, TSA indicated that the accumulated evidence is still inconclusive. We suggest that more well-designed clinical trials with large sample and higher quality would be required in future to draw a definitive conclusion.Sciendo2544-8994http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/FON-2020-000110.2478/FON-2020-0001AnxietyNAStress reliefNADepressionNANANANANANANANAStudents8Systematic reviewReviewNA
2504YESJournal ArticlePilot evaluation of the stop, breathe & think mindfulness app for student clients on a college counseling center waitlist2020Levin ME,Hicks ET,Krafft JJournal of American College HealthObjectives: College counseling centers face significant challenges meeting the mental health needs of their students and waitlists are common. Mobile apps offer a promising solution to increase acc...Taylor & Francis1940-3208https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2020.1728281;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1728281;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3215051910.1080/07448481.2020.1728281DepressionCounseling center assessment of psychological symptoms-34 item version (CCAPS-34)AnxietyCounseling center assessment of psychological symptoms-34 item version (CCAPS-34)DistressCounseling center assessment of psychological symptoms-34 item version (CCAPS-34)NANANANANANA23Students4Pilot randomized controlled trialPilot studyUSA
2515YESJournal ArticleEvaluating Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Self-Help Books for College Student Mental Health2020Levin ME,An W,Davis CH,Twohig MPMindfulnessObjectives: Self-help has the potential to improve access to mental health resources for college students. However, solutions are needed to improve sustainable delivery and cost-effectiveness, and to know which resources are most useful. Methods: A sample of 109 college students were randomly assigned to read either an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) or mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) self-help book through the university library website over 8 weeks with assessments at baseline, midtreatment (4 weeks), and posttreatment (8 weeks). Results: The majority of participants reported reading over half of their assigned book and high satisfaction ratings were given for both books. Both conditions demonstrated equivalent medium to large effect sizes for improvements over time on outcomes (psychological distress, positive mental health, academic distress) and processes of change (psychological inflexibility, mindfulness, cognitive fusion). However, the ACT condition produced improvements on obstruction with valued action more quickly than MBSR. Across conditions, baseline to midtreatment improvements in psychological inflexibility, valued action, cognitive fusion, and mindfulness, all predicted baseline to posttreatment improvements in psychological distress. Improvements in psychological inflexibility more strongly predicted improvements in positive mental health in the MBSR condition. Conclusions: Overall, results suggest the potential benefits of both ACT and MBSR self-help books for improving student mental health and the potential promise of delivering these books through online university library systems.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-020-01344-310.1007/S12671-020-01344-3Mental healthMental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) (Keyes 2005)Depression, Anxiety, and StressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANANANANANANAStudents8Two experimental group
Pre post test
Randomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
2524NoJournal ArticleIntervention Effect of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy on College Students Dependent on Online Games in the Internet Era2020Lei Y,Zhang EAdvances in Intelligent Systems and ComputingUsing SAS and MPAI scales, 60 subjects were selected from 820 subjects and randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group for the experimental study. It is expected to intervene in the mobile phone dependence through mindfulness based cognitive therapy in order to reduce the degree of mobile phone dependence of college students. The results showed that the total score of mobile phone dependence, uncontrollability, abstinence and avoidance factors in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the mindfulness level was significantly improved after the group counseling training of mindfulness based cognitive therapy for 4 weeks and 8 times. The results showed that the effect of the mindfulness based cognitive therapy on the mobile phone dependence was obvious. The main ways in which the mindfulness works in this study are as follows. The attitude of acceptance reduces stress and anxiety, alleviates symptoms, strengthens the ability to concentrate and alleviates the influence of the symptom attraction. And the improvement of the mindfulness brings about the behavioral adjustment and changes. The group mindfulness based cognitive therapy can play a certain role in improving the obsessive-compulsive symptoms of college students. In the future, large sample randomized controlled study is needed to further explore the effect of this therapy.Springer2194-5365https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-15-1468-5_192;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1468-5_192/COVER10.1007/978-981-15-1468-5_192/COVERMobile phone dependenceYale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS)UncontrollabilityYale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS)AbstinenceYale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS)AvoidanceThe Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)NANANANA60Students4Experimental studyRandomized controlled trial (RCT)China
2530YESMiscellaneousStudiCare mindfulness—study protocol of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an internet- and mobile-based intervention for college students with no and “on demand” guidance2020Küchler AM,Schultchen D,Pollatos O,Moshagen M,Ebert DD,Baumeister HTrialsBackground: College is an exciting but also challenging time with an increased risk for mental health issues. Only a minority of the college students concerned get professional help, a problem that might be improvable by internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs). However, adherence of IMIs is a concern. While guidance might be a solution, it is resource-intensive, derailing potential implementation on population level. The first aim of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy of the IMI StudiCare Mindfulness (StudiCare-M) for college students with “on demand” and no guidance. The second aim is to examine potential moderators and mediators, contributing to the questions of “how” and “for whom” such interventions work. Methods: In this three-armed randomized controlled trial, both an unguided and “guidance on demand” (GoD) condition of StudiCare-M are compared to a waitlist control group. StudiCare-M is based on principles of acceptance and commitment therapy and stress management and consists of 7 modules plus two booster sessions. Participants in the GoD condition may ask their e-coach for support whenever needed. A total of 387 college students with moderate to low mindfulness are recruited at 15+ cooperating universities in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland via circular emails. Assessments take place before as well as 1, 2, and 6 months after randomization. The primary outcome is mindfulness. Secondary outcomes include stress, depression, anxiety, interoception, presenteeism, wellbeing, intervention satisfaction, adherence, and potential side effects. Among examined moderators and mediators are sociodemographic variables, pre-treatment symptomatology, treatment expectancy, self-efficacy, cognitive fusion, emotion regulation, and alexithymia. All data will be analyzed according to intention-to-treat (ITT) principles. Discussion: Providing effective interventions to help college students become more resilient can make a valuable contribution to the health and functionality of future society. If effective under the condition of minimal or no guidance, StudiCare-M offers a low-threshold potentially resource-efficient possibility to enhance college student mental health on a population level. Moderation- and mediation analyses will deliver further insights for optimization of target groups and intervention content. Trial registration: WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform via the German Clinical Studies Trial Register DRKS00014774. Registered on 18 May 2018.BioMed Central Ltd1745-6215http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S13063-020-04868-0;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3324330010.1186/S13063-020-04868-0NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2540NoJournal ArticleCreativity-Focused Mindfulness for Student Well-Being2020Henriksen D,Shack KKappa Delta Pi RecordTaking a whole-child approach to schooling, the authors address how creativity and mindfulness are connected and suggest practical ways that teachers can integrate them into the curriculum.Bellwether Publishing, Ltd.2163-1611http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00228958.2020.181351910.1080/00228958.2020.1813519NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2554NoJournal ArticleExperiences of university employees of the impact of a mindful self-care and resiliency program on their well-being2020Hegney D,Tsai L,Craigie M,Crawford C,Jay S,Rees CHigher Education Research & DevelopmentUniversity employees experience high levels of workplace stress, with the perception that it is increasing, due to less autonomy, increased student numbers, excessive administrative work and role a...Routledge1469-8366https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07294360.2020.1764508;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2020.176450810.1080/07294360.2020.1764508Well‑beingNAInteraction with othersNASelf-careNANANANANANANA19University employeesNAQualitative StudyQualitative StudyAustralia
2565YESJournal ArticlePhysical and Psychological Health Predict Adherence to an Online Mindfulness Program for College Students2020Gutierrez D,Forbes L,Johnson SKCounseling and ValuesWe examined predictors of students' adherence to a 10-session online mindfulness program. Undergraduates naive to meditation (N = 169) were recruited from an introductory psychology subject pool. Students completed assessments examining physical and psychological health and were asked to complete a 10-session online mindfulness activity. More than half (53%) of the sample was fully adherent to the program. Better physical health and lower levels of anxiety predicted adherence. We present recommendations for increasing adherence in the clinical use of mindfulness with college students.Wiley Blackwell2161-007Xhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/CVJ.1213810.1002/CVJ.12138Depression, anxiety, and stressDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)NANANANANANANANANANA169Students2Experimental studyRandomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
2576NoMiscellaneousThe effects of mindfulness-based empathy training on empathy and aged discrimination in nursing students: A randomised controlled trial2020Gür GC,Yilmaz EComplementary Therapies in Clinical PracticeThe aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Mindfulness-Based Empathy Training (MBET) program on nursing students’ empathy and aged discrimination. This study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial (RCT). The 123 participants were randomly allocated to either the training group or the control group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the experimental group received the MBET. No intervention was applied to the participants in the control group. “Descriptive Information Form”, “Jefferson Empathy Scale (JSENS)”, and “Age Discrimination Attitude Scale (ADAS)” were used for data collection. General Linear Model repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effect of the MBET on JSENS and ADAS. The analyses revealed that participants in the training group reported a significant increase in empathy level compared to the control group. No significant change in total aged discrimination scores and sub-scale of the ADAS were recorded in either group. This study indicated that empathy can be enhanced over an 8-week duration when mindfulness practices are integrated into a curriculum.Churchill Livingstone1744-3881http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.CTCP.2020.101140;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3237967510.1016/J.CTCP.2020.101140EmpathyJefferson Empathy Scale (JSENS)& Age discriminationAge Discrimination Attitude Scale (ADAS)NANANANANANANANA123Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Turkey
2585NoJournal ArticleImproving motivation in Latin American immigrants through a mindfulnessbased program: A randomized study2020Franco C,Soriano E,Amutio A,Mañas ITerapia PsicologicaIn this experimental study, we present the results of a mindfulness psycho-educational program on achievement motivation and motivation for learning applied to a sample of immigrant students of Latin American origin living in southeastern Spain. The sample consists of 50 students, of which 25 form the experimental group and 25 the control group. The intervention program was carried out for 10 weeks. The results show statistically significant differences between both groups in motivation for achievement and in three of the six dimensions of motivation for learning (self-efficacy, control and anxiety). The study confirms the effectiveness of the mindfulness program to improve the levels of achievement motivation and motivation for learning in Latin American youth immigrants. The convenience of using these programs within the educational curriculum is highlighted.Sociedad Chilena de Psicologia Clinica0718-4808http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-4808202000010000510.4067/S0718-48082020000100005Achievement motivationAttributional Achievement Motivation ScaleMotivation for learningStrategies and Motivation for Learning QuestionnaireNANANANANANANANA50Students10Experimental group and control groupRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Spain
2594YESJournal ArticleApp-based mindfulness meditation for psychological distress and adjustment to college in incoming university students: a pragmatic, randomised, waitlist-controlled trial2020Flett JA,Conner TS,Riordan BC,Patterson T,Hayne HPsychology and HealthObjective and Design: In a pragmatic, randomised, waitlist-controlled trial we tracked 250 first-year university students who were randomly assigned to 3 months of a mindfulness meditation app (Headspace) to use at their discretion in either semester 1 (intervention, n = 124) or semester 2 (waitlist, n = 126). Main Outcome Measures: Students reported their distress, college adjustment, resilience, self-efficacy, and mindfulness, at 3 timepoints: the beginning of semester 1, the beginning of semester 2, and the end of the academic year. With participants’ permission, the university provided academic achievement data and Headspace provided app use data. Results: Evidence for improvements in distress at the beginning of semester 2 was weak (intervention vs. waitlist) and app use was low (M = 7.91, SD = 15.16 sessions). Nevertheless, intervention participants who used the app more frequently reported improvements in psychological distress (−5 points, R2 change =.12) and college adjustment (+10 points, R2 change =.09) when compared to non-users. App initiation and persistence beyond the first week was higher when the app was provided in semester 1 than semester 2 (66.1% vs. 44.4%; 46.0% vs. 32.5%). Conclusion: Headspace use was associated with small improvements in distress and college adjustment in first-year university students. Intervening at the beginning of the academic year may encourage uptake.Routledge1476-8321http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2019.1711089;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32046499NAPsychological distressKessler Psychological DistressCollege adjustmentCollege Adjustment TestNANANANANANANANA250Students12Pragmatic, randomised, waitlist-controlled trialRandomized controlled trial (RCT)New Zealand
2600NoBook ChapterSelf-regulation as a mediator in the relationship between mindfulness and cognitive test anxiety among university students2020Fitri GF,Widyasari PPsychological Aspects of Student Performance: Learning from Studies in an Indonesian ContextAnxiety-related phenomena commonly occur among university students, especially cognitive test anxiety. Individuals with high cognitive test anxiety tend to perform poorly on tests. Several studies have found that mindfulness and self-regulation can affect cognitive test anxiety. This study was conducted to determine whether self-regulation mediates the relationship between mindfulness and cognitive test anxiety in university students. This correlational study was conducted on 192 university students. In this study, cognitive test anxiety was measured using the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale-17 (CTAS-17) (Cassady & Finch, 2014), mindfulness was measured using the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (Brown and Ryan, 2003), and self-regulation was measured using the Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SSRQ) (Carey, Neal, & Collins, 2004). Our statistical analysis results show that self-regulation partially mediates the relationship between mindfulness and cognitive test anxiety with indirect effect (β = -0,09, p < 0,05) and direct effect (β = -0,29, p < 0,05). These results indicate that mindfulness can predict cognitive test anxiety directly or through self-regulation in university students. This study adds to the literature on research variables and helps education practitioners such as lecturers, curriculum-makers, and other individuals who work in student education.Nova Science Publishers, Inc.NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicCorrelational study NA
2615NoJournal ArticleThe Adaptation and Evaluation of a Pilot Mindfulness Intervention Promoting Mental Health in Student Athletes2020Evers AG,Somogie JA,Wong IL,Allen JD,Cuevas AGJournal of Clinical Sport PsychologyThe objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a pilot mindfulness program for student athletes by assessing mental health, mindfulness ability, and perceived stress before and after the intervention. The mindfulness program was adapted from a program developed at the University of Southern California. The four-session intervention taught the basics of mindfulness, self-care skills, and guided meditations. Participants completed surveys before and after the interven-tion. Mindfulness ability was assessed with the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale, mental health was assessed with a modified Short Form Health Survey, and stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale. After the intervention, participants reported improvement in mindfulness ability, t(28) = −2.61, p = .014, mental health, t(28) = −2.87, p = .008, and a trending improvement in perceived stress, t(28) = 1.86, p = .073. A short mindfulness program may be effective for improving mental health and mindfulness ability in collegiate student athletes.Human Kinetics1932-927Xhttps://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/jcsp/15/3/article-p206.xml;http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/JCSP.2019-008310.1123/JCSP.2019-0083Mindfulness levelCognitive and Affective Mindfulness ScaleMental healthShort Form Health Survey (modified)Stress ReliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANA28Students4 daysPretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designUSA
2625YESJournal ArticleError processing and mindfulness meditation in female students2020Eichel K,Stahl JInternational Journal of PsychophysiologyMindfulness seems to have an impact on error processing in simple response tasks, as former studies reported both an effect of mindfulness meditation on, as well as relationships to trait mindfulness with behavioral and neural correlates of error processing. However, the results of these studies showed no consistent pattern. To dismantle some of these findings, this study investigated the impact in female students of a four-week, smartphone-based mindfulness training program (N = 22) in comparison with an active control group that did progressive muscle relaxation (PMR; N = 20). In addition to behavioral data, two error-related components of the event-related potential were measured with electroencephalogram while performing a combination of a modified Simon task and an error detection paradigm, namely error-related negativity and error positivity. Mindfulness meditation did not have a differential effect on error components in comparison to PMR. For both, we found a reduction of stress symptoms, an increase in mindfulness and an increase in error positivity.Elsevier0167-8760http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.IJPSYCHO.2019.11.001;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3171520810.1016/J.IJPSYCHO.2019.11.001Stress reliefEEGNANANANANANANANANANA42Students4Two experimental group
Randomized controlled trial (RCT)NA
2630NoJournal ArticleRelationship Between Trait Mindfulness and Sleep Quality in College Students: A Conditional Process Model2020Ding X,Wang X,Yang Z,Tang R,Tang YYFrontiers in PsychologySleep quality can affect the physical and mental health, as well as the personal development of college students. Mindfulness practices are known to ameliorate sleep disorder and improve sleep quality. Trait mindfulness, an innate capacity often enhanced by mindfulness training, has been shown to relate to better sleep quality and different aspects of psychological well-being. However, how individual difference factors such as trait mindfulness relate to sleep quality remains largely unclear, which limits the optimization and further application of mindfulness-based intervention schemes targeting the improvement of sleep quality. In this study, we aimed to investigate how negative emotions and neuroticism may influence the relationship between trait mindfulness and sleep quality. A conditional process model was built to examine these relationships in 1,423 Chinese young adults. Specifically, the conditional process model was constructed with trait mindfulness as the independent variable, sleep quality as the dependent variable, negative emotions as the mediating variable, and neuroticism as the moderating variable. Our results showed that negative emotions mediated the link between mindfulness and sleep quality and that neuroticism had a moderating effect on the relationship between mindfulness and sleep quality. Together, these findings suggested a potential mechanism of how trait mindfulness influences sleep quality, provided a therapeutic target for which mindfulness-based interventions may act upon to improve sleep quality, and offered a basis for prediction of different intervention effects among individuals.Frontiers Media S.A.1664-1078http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/FPSYG.2020.57631910.3389/FPSYG.2020.576319NANANANANANANANANANANANA1423StudentsTOPICNA China
2644YESJournal ArticleA Neurophenomenological Investigation of Mindfulness Among Collegiate Musicians2020Diaz FM,Silveira JM,Strand KJournal of Research in Music EducationWe investigated the efficacy of a phenomenological matrix of mindfulness as a framework for examining expectations, formal meditation experiences, and appraisals of first-year college music students (N = 18) who participated in a 5-day mindfulness module offered through an introductory course in music education. Participants expressed hopes that meditation would help them manage stress and anxiety, improve their focus and relationships, and support their personal growth and motivation. With respect to lived experiences of formal meditation, we found that without explicit prompting, approximately 86% of coded phrases reflected dimensions of experience that could be mapped within the matrix, suggesting its efficacy for coding. Furthermore, almost all participants attributed mindfulness to improving their general wellness, with dereification, breathing, and nonaversive affect frequently mentioned as key factors leading to these improvements. Additionally, consistent with the neurophenomenological aims of the matrix, we list cognitive outcomes and neurophysiological mechanisms potentially attributable to the nature of selected appraisal statements by participants.SAGE Publications Inc.1945-0095http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242942092118410.1177/0022429420921184Well‑beingThe Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD)NANANANANANANANANANA18Students1 (5 consecutive days)Qualitative StudyQualitative StudyUSA
2655NoMiscellaneousEfeitos de um curso de meditação de atenção plena em estudantes da saúde no Brasil2020de Araujo AC,de Santana CL,Kozasa EH,Lacerda SS,Tanaka LHActa Paulista de EnfermagemResumo Objetivo Avaliar os efeitos de um curso de meditação de atenção plena nas emoções e na gentileza dos estudantes de Saúde em relação a si mesmos e aos outros. Métodos Estudo de caso longitudinal e de método misto com inclusão de ferramentas quantitativas e qualitativas. Os grupos de controle (n=14) e de estudo (n=16) foram formados por uma população de 30 estudantes de Enfermagem, Medicina e Fonoaudiologia. Os participantes do grupo de estudo fizeram curso eletivo sobre estratégias para desenvolver a atenção plena incluindo varredura corporal, respiração consciente e movimento consciente, entre outros. Durante as aulas, os alunos também participaram de discussões sobre gentileza e compaixão, com base em espiritualidade e neurociência. O curso teve duração de 36 horas, ao longo de nove semanas. Os alunos dos grupos de estudo e controle foram avaliados por meio de entrevistas em grupo, antes e após o curso. As ferramentas de avaliação incluíram a Escala de Estresse Percebido (PSS), a Escala de Atenção Plena e Consciência (MAAS), a Escala de Afeto Positivo e Negativo X (PANAS-X); e o Índice de Bem-Estar OMS-5. Resultados Após o curso, os indivíduos do grupo de estudo alcançaram pontuações significativamente mais baixas no PANAS-X (afeto negativo) em comparação com as pontuações anteriores. Outras variáveis quantitativas não tiveram alterações significativas (p>0,05). Três categorias emergiram das análises qualitativas: (a) dificuldades em viver o momento presente e ansiedade na tentativa de controlar o futuro; (b) práticas de meditação como ferramenta para enfrentar tais dificuldades; e (c) experiência caracterizada pelo afeto. Conclusão O curso eletivo focado na meditação da atenção plena e compaixão ajudou a desenvolver as habilidades socioemocionais de bem-estar, a autoconsciência dos alunos e a reduzir o afeto negativo.Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo0103-2100http://www.scielo.br/j/ape/a/zskyVyDJyTwpxB5sMJsK5Qj/?lang=pt;http://dx.doi.org/10.37689/ACTA-APE/2020AO017010.37689/ACTA-APE/2020AO0170Negative affectPositive and Negative Affect Scale X (PANAS-X)Well-beingPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Self-awarenessMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANANANA30Students9Longitudinal, mixed-method case study including both quantitative and qualitative tools.Mixed MethodBrazil
2065YESMiscellaneousThe Effectiveness of a Brief Mindfulness-Based Program for Social Work Students in Two Separate Modules: Traditional and Online2021Asl NR,İl SJournal of Evidence-Based Social WorkThis study aimed to design a brief mindfulness-based training program for social work students and examine its effectiveness and working mechanisms.The study used a quantitative approach to examine...Routledge2640-8074https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/26408066.2021.1964670;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/26408066.2021.196467010.1080/26408066.2021.1964670DepressionDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)AnxietyDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)Stress ReliefDepression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale–21 (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995)RuminationThe Ruminative Thought Style ScaleSelf-compassionThe Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003)Mindfulness LevelThe Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)101Students4Quasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyTurkey
2674NoJournal ArticleMindfulness for undergraduate health and social care professional students: Findings from a qualitative scoping review using the 3P model2020Crowther LL,Robertson N,Anderson ESMedical EducationContext: With many health and social care schools offering mindfulness training (MT) there is a need for deeper understanding about pedagogical issues. Despite encouraging findings showing relationships between MT and student stress reduction, there is little qualitative synthesis of the literature about best principles for teaching and learning. Methods: We report on a qualitative scoping review using the stages of Arksey and O’Malley's framework. The search identified papers from MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and SCOPUS over 15 years. The included papers were synthesised using the 3P model of teaching and learning to explore current MT for presage (teaching set-up), process (teaching delivery) and product (outcomes) factors. Results: A total of 16 articles were included in the review. There was a lack of consensus on definition of MT, facilitator training and the intervention used. The majority of studies involved small self-selected, mainly female cohorts. For the set-up (presage factors), the majority of curricula included MT for stress management and well-being, delivered in the early years. Providing appropriate facilitators was a concern, whereas process factors revealed enormous variability in delivery. Few studies had formal assessment, although many had outcome evaluation measures (product factors). Conclusions: The qualitative review has highlighted additional benefits from MT aside from stress reduction; most noticeably, student self-awareness, peer cohesion and group support, ability to attend to patients, and student insights into health and social education culture. Seeking presage, process and product factors has illuminated variability in how MT is being adapted within health and social care curricula. This review highlights the next steps and recommendations for the future.Blackwell Publishing Ltd1365-2923http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/MEDU.14150;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3216361510.1111/MEDU.14150Stress reliefNASelf-awarenessNAPeer cohesionNAGroup supportNAAbility to attend to patientsNANANANAStudentsNAQualitative scoping review using the stages of Arksey and O’Malley's frameworkReviewNA
2685NoJournal ArticleMindfulness, happiness, and anxiety in a sample of college students before and after taking a meditation course2020Crowley C,Kapitula LR,Munk DJournal of American College HealthTo explore differences in mindfulness, happiness, and perceived anxiety in a sample of college students before and after taking a meditation course.Participants were college students at a primarily...Taylor & Francis1940-3208https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2020.1754839;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1754839;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3236942210.1080/07448481.2020.1754839HappinessSubjective Happiness ScaleMindfulness LevelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)AnxietyState Trait Anxiety InventoryNANANANANANA147Students15Before-after observational study with two groupsQuasi-experimental studyUSA
2695YESJournal ArticleExamining virtual meditation as a stress management strategy on college campuses through longitudinal, quasi-experimental research2020Crosswell L,Yun GWBehaviour & Information TechnologyLevels of student stress and psychopathology are greater than ever before and the need for mental health support is increasing. Because students themselves are often reluctant to seek out counselli...Taylor & Francis1362-3001https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/0144929X.2020.1838609;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2020.183860910.1080/0144929X.2020.1838609Stress reliefCohen’s Perceived StressScale (CPSS), modified versionHeart rateNANANANANANANANANA4Students6Longitudinal quasi-experimentalQuasi-experimental studyusa
2705NoJournal ArticleMindfulness and coaching to improve learning abilities in university students: A pilot study2020Corti L,Gelati CInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthThis pilot study investigated the effects of a short 10-module intervention called MEL (Mindful Effective Learning), which integrates mindfulness, coaching, and training on study strategies, to improve learning abilities among university students. Inspired by ample research on the learning topics that points out how effective learning and good academic results depend simultaneously on self-regulation while studying combined with emotional and motivational factors, the intervention aimed to train students simultaneously in these three aspects. The intervention group participants (N = 21) and the control group participants (N = 24) were surveyed pre- and post-intervention with the Italian questionnaire AMOS (Abilities and Motivation to Study) and the Italian version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). The results showed that, regarding self-regulation in study, trained students improved their self-awareness, self-evaluation ability, metacognition skills, and organizational and elaborative ability to manage study materials; regarding emotional aspects, they improved their anxiety control; regarding motivation they developed an incremental theory of Self and improved their confidence in their own intelligence. Moreover, two follow-up self-report surveys were conducted, and trained students reported positive assessments of the MEL intervention. Findings suggest that a short intervention based on mindfulness and coaching and training on study strategies may improve students’ effective learning.MDPI AG1660-4601http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH17061935;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3218802810.3390/IJERPH17061935Self-awarenessAMOS (Abilities and Motivation to Study)Self-evaluation abilityAMOS (Abilities and Motivation to Study)Metacognition skillsAMOS (Abilities and Motivation to Study)Manage study materialsAMOS (Abilities and Motivation to Study)Anxiety controlMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)Developed an incremental theory of SelfAMOS (Abilities and Motivation to Study)45Students10Two-group pre-test-post-test designPilot studyItaly
2710NoJournal ArticleEffect of training intervention on mindfulness among the resident doctors in teaching hospitals of Maharashtra2020Chavan KD,Thitame SN,Mane SPravara Medical ReviewIntroduction: The concept of being mindful is gaining an extensive acceptance and popularity, especially in the medical world. Being a mindful doctor is a prime need of medical profession. With this background, an interventional study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of a training intervention on knowledge and attitude among the resident doctors. Methodology: The study setting was the Medical Colleges having postgraduate courses and rendering the patient care involving residents using diagnostic and treatment facilities in the teaching hospital. The study population was the resident's doctors of first year to third year, from randomly selected medical colleges of Maharashtra. The study intervention was designed by taking reference from the literature mentioning the doctor patient relation and communication skills. Results and conclusion: There was significant difference in the pre and post scores for quantified knowledge in relation to “being a mindful doctor” (p=0.015). So the training to the resident doctors resulted in significant change in the quantified knowledge and attitude in relation to “being a mindful doctor”, suggesting that the intervention was effective in improving knowledge and attitude with respect to mindfulness.Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences0976-0164http://dx.doi.org/10.36848/PMR/2020/12100.5048010.36848/PMR/2020/12100.50480Being a mindful DoctorNANANANANANANANANANANA368Students (resident’s doctors)topicNA India
2724NoMiscellaneousMind the T-Square: Mindfulness-Based stress reduction for design students and its modes of action on studio performance and critique anxiety2020Ceylanlı Z,Engin E,Bengü MInternational Journal of Design EducationThis study investigates the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on the studio performance and critique anxiety of design students. Nine interior architecture students in their fourth year at a private university in Istanbul, Turkey, were recruited for the study. Qualitative data related to their perceived stress levels as well as studio performance were collected both during and after a standard, eight-week MBSR program. The data were then coded and analyzed per the principles of grounded theory, until thematic saturation was reached. The results show that MBSR has the potential to improve students’ studio performance as well as their well-being in general. Over the eight weeks of MBSR intervention, study participants observed a steady reduction in their stress and anxiety levels, better focus on design problems, a motivation to work more, a reduction in seeking perfectionism, having obsessive thoughts, and indulging in self-censoring, better sleep patterns, as well as less fatigue and chronic pain.Common Ground Research Networks2325-1298http://dx.doi.org/10.18848/2325-128X/CGP/V15I01/57-7410.18848/2325-128X/CGP/V15I01/57-74Stress reliefNAAnxietyNAFocus on design problemsNAMotivation to work moreNAReduction in seeking perfectionismNAReduction having obsessive thoughtsNA9Students8Qualitative StudyQualitative StudyTurkey
2735NoJournal ArticleEffectiveness of mindfulness-based coloring for university students’ test anxiety2020Carsley D,Heath NLJournal of American College HealthObjective: This study compared the effectiveness of mindfulness coloring (mandala), free drawing/coloring, and a noncoloring control activity for university students’ test anxiety, and assessed the relationship of dispositional mindfulness and response to intervention on mindfulness and test anxiety states. Participants: University students (n = 167; 81.4% female; Mage = 21.29 years, SD = 4.46) were randomly assigned to a mandala (n = 57), free draw/coloring (n = 58), or noncoloring condition (n = 52). Methods: Participants completed standardized measures assessing test anxiety and state mindfulness pre–postactivity before completing a test, and two dispositional mindfulness measures. Results: Participants in both coloring conditions reported significant decreases in test anxiety and significant increases in state mindfulness pre–postintervention, and participants in the control condition reported significant increases in test anxiety. Reports of preintervention state mindfulness and test anxiety fully mediated relations between dispositional mindfulness and postintervention state mindfulness and test anxiety. Conclusions: Implications for research and practice on mindfulness coloring and test anxiety are discussed.Routledge1940-3208http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1583239;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3090813610.1080/07448481.2019.1583239Test AnxietyState-Trait Anxiety Inventory’s State Anxiety Scale (STAI)Mindfulness LevelMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)NANANANANANANANA167Students1 dayTwo experimental group
Pre post test
Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Canada
2745NoJournal ArticleMindfulness training for healthcare professional students: A waitlist controlled pilot study on psychological and work-relevant outcomes2020Braun SE,Dow A,Loughan A,Mladen S,Crawford MK,Rybarczyk B,Kinser PComplementary Therapies in MedicineObjectives: To fill gaps in the literature on the effects of mindfulness for healthcare professionals (HCPs), the current pragmatic trial investigated feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of Mindfulness for Interdisciplinary Healthcare Professional (MIHP) students on stress and work-relevant outcomes in the absence of offering school-based incentives. Design: A partially randomized waitlist-controlled design (intention-to-treat sample: 22 in the mindfulness group, 26 in the control group) was employed. Intervention: MIHP is an eight-week intervention that incorporates meditation training, yoga, and discussion on the application of mindfulness principles to stressors commonly faced by HCPs and students. Main outcome measures: Domains of feasibility and acceptability; Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated measures of psychological functioning; cognitive task performance on the Trail Making Test A & B; and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment plus Classroom Impairment Questionnaire. Results: Results supported the feasibility and acceptability of MIHP but found randomization to be unacceptable. Small to large effects were found for MIHP, relative to the control group, on outcomes of burnout, perceived stress, mindfulness, and activity impairment. No effect of MIHP was found on cognitive performance or work productivity outcomes. Conclusions: Preferential group allocation improved retention relative to randomization in the absence of school-based incentives. Results suggest that MIHP is feasible and acceptable and may have benefit for improving mindfulness and reducing burnout, stress, and activity impairment. Cognitive performance, work absenteeism, and work impairment did not change following MIHP. Results support future investigations into the effects of participant compensation on MIHP's dissemination and effectiveness.Churchill Livingstone1873-6963http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.CTIM.2020.102405;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3250742410.1016/J.CTIM.2020.102405BurnoutMaslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS)Perceived stressThe Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14)Mindfulness Level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). Activity impairmentWork Productivity and Activity Impairment plus Classroom Impairment Questionnaire.Cognitive performanceTrail Making Test A & B& Work productivityWork Productivity and Activity Impairment plus Classroom Impairment Questionnaire.48Students8Partially randomized waitlist-controlled designPilot studyUSA
2754NoMiscellaneousA follow-up study to a randomised control trial to investigate the perceived impact of mindfulness on academic performance in university students2020Bóo SJ,Childs-Fegredo J,Cooney S,Datta B,Dufour G,Jones PB,Galante JCounselling and Psychotherapy ResearchObjectives: Mindfulness research in education has focused on its potential to support student well-being. There is a paucity of research on the interaction between mindfulness and academic performance (AP). This qualitative study builds on results of the largest randomised control trial of mindfulness in education to date which suggested mindfulness can have mixed effects on academic performance. A more in-depth understanding of the relationship between mindfulness and academic performance is therefore needed to ascertain if, how and for which students mindfulness facilitates academic performance. The objective of the study was to capture students’ perceptions of the impact of mindfulness on their academic performance. Methods: Thematic analysis was applied to data obtained by six in-depth interviews from three higher and three lower performing undergraduate participants in the mindfulness intervention arm of the Mindful Student Study randomised control trial. Results: Three themes emerged, whereby five students described mindfulness having a positive impact on their academic performance. One student felt mindfulness had an initial negative impact on academic performance. All students felt mindfulness enhanced self-awareness and self-regulation of their thinking, feelings and behaviours, and our analysis suggests students perceived these processes underpinned the effect of mindfulness on academic performance. Conclusion: Differences in students’ psychological distress and study habits may determine the differing initial impact of mindfulness on academic performance.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1746-1405http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/CAPR.1228210.1002/CAPR.12282Academic performanceNASelf-awareness and self-regulationNANANANANANANANANA6Students8Qualitative StudyQualitative StudyEngland
2760NoJournal ArticleImproved quality of life and reduced depressive symptoms in medical students after a single-session intervention2020Bermudez MB,Ferrã YA,Bentley KH,Manfro GG,Dreher CBBrazilian Journal of PsychiatryAbstract Objective: Anxiety and depression are prevalent among medical students. Brazilian medical students have higher levels of depression and lower quality of life than their U.S. counterparts, and no preventive intervention exists for this risk group in Brazil. The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP), a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol for neuroticism, was recently adapted into a single-session, preventive intervention. This study tested the impact of this protocol on psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in Brazilian medical students. Methods: In this open trial, the intervention protocol was translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. Medical students over 18 years of age without psychotic symptoms, severe depressive episodes, or acute psychiatric risk were included, undergoing a psychiatric clinical interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI]) and evaluation at baseline and at 7 and 30 days after a single-session UP that included experimental avoidance, quality of life, self-esteem, empathy, and anxiety symptom scales. A new evaluation was performed 90 days after the intervention. Results: Sixty-two students participated. Ninety days after the intervention, there were significant reductions in the number of students who met the criteria for social anxiety disorder (p = 0.013) or panic disorder (p = 0.001). There were also significant improvements in depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, p < 0.001) and quality of life (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, p < 0.001). Conclusion: UP improved anxiety and depressive symptoms in medical students. The single-session group format could reduce costs and facilitate application. Future placebo-controlled studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Prevention; cognitive-behavioral therapy; unified protocol; medical students; quality of lifeNANAhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2019-052610.1590/1516-4446-2019-0526Social anxiety disorderThe Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Question-naire (MEAQ)Clinical improvements in panic disorderThe Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Question-naire (MEAQ)DepressionBeck Depression Inventory (BD
Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Ques-tionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF)
NANANANANANA62StudentstopicNABrazil
2775NoMiscellaneousBrief mindfulness session improves mood and increases salivary oxytocin in psychology students2020Bellosta-Batalla M,del Carmen Blanco-Gandía M,Rodríguez-Arias M,Cebolla A,Pérez-Blasco J,Moya-Albiol LStress and HealthMindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have been shown to be effective in increasing empathy in health professionals. Yet, more research is needed to analyse the specific influence of mindfulness exercises on biological variables involved in empathy, such as the biological system of oxytocin activity. In this study, we analyse the effects of a brief mindfulness session on positive and negative affect, state anxiety and salivary oxytocin (sOXT) in psychology students (N = 68). In the experimental group (n = 42), a mindfulness session was performed that included different guided meditation exercises. In the control group (n = 26), an emotion recognition exercise was carried out, along with a series of creative activities. Results showed that the mindfulness session was effective, because there was a significant reduction in negative affect (d = −.56, p <.001) and state anxiety (d = −.54, p =.007) in the experimental group. Likewise, there was an increase in sOXT (d =.99, p <.001) in this group, compared with the control group. Guided mindfulness meditation practice could be useful to reach an emotional and biological state that facilitates empathy. In this regard, the increase in sOXT after the mindfulness session adds further evidence about the biological mechanisms underlying the benefits of MBI on empathy.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd1532-2998http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/SMI.2942;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3222762410.1002/SMI.2942EmpathyBasal levels of salivary oxytocin (sOXT)AnxietySpanish version of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S)Negative affectSpanish version of the Positive and Negative Affect ScheduleNANANANANANA68Students1 dayExperimental group and control groupRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Spain
2785NoMiscellaneousIncreased Salivary Oxytocin and Empathy in Students of Clinical and Health Psychology After a Mindfulness and Compassion-Based Intervention2020Bellosta-Batalla M,Blanco-Gandía MC,Rodríguez-Arias M,Cebolla A,Pérez-Blasco J,Moya-Albiol LMindfulnessObjectives: Mindfulness and compassion-based interventions (MCBI) have shown to be effective in increasing self-reported empathy in healthcare professionals. However, no studies described a beneficial effect of MCBI on biological variables related to empathy. In this study, we analyze the effects of an MCBI on the basal levels of salivary oxytocin (sOXT), empathic accuracy, and self-reported empathy in students of clinical and health psychology (N = 90). Methods: In the experimental group (n = 37), an MCBI was applied. In the active control group (n = 27), students participated in basic psychotherapeutic skills training. In the waiting list group (n = 26), students did not participate in any intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed, including pre- and post-intervention evaluations and the follow-up evaluation. Results: Results indicate a significant interaction between the groups on the basal levels of sOXT (p =.045, ηp2 =.05) and perspective taking (p =.040, ηp2 =.06), so that the experimental group showed increased sOXT at the end of the MCBI (p =.009, d =.66) and in perspective taking on the follow-up evaluation (p =.001, d =.52). Conclusions: Introducing MCBI in the university education of clinical and health psychologists can help to improve their empathy skills, which would ultimately have a beneficial influence on the health of the users of their services. Furthermore, sOXT could be used as a valid biomarker in the study of the effects of MCBI on biological variables associated with empathy and affective bonds in different settings.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-020-01316-710.1007/S12671-020-01316-7EmpathyBasal levels of salivary oxytocin (sOXT)Perspective takingNANANANANANANANANA90Students1 dayPretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designSpain
2794NoJournal ArticleMindfulness Practices in Supervision: Training Counselors’ Experiences2020Banker JE,Goldenson DThe Family Journal: Counseling andTherapy for Couples and FamiliesThe purpose of this qualitative study was to develop a descriptive understanding of couple and family counseling trainees’ experiences of using mindfulness techniques in their group supervision cou...SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA1552-3950https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1066480720954204;http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106648072095420410.1177/1066480720954204Personal growthNAClinical practice improvementsNAMore attentive to therapy practiceNAExpanded viewsNANANANANA6Students16Qualitative grounded theoryQualitative StudyUSA
2805NoJournal ArticleEffects of Mindfulness Training on Daily Stress Response in College Students: Ecological Momentary Assessment of a Randomized Controlled Trial2020Bai S,Elavsky S,Kishida M,Dvořáková K,Greenberg MTMindfulnessObjective: Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce rates of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress, but its impact on stress and emotion regulation in real-world settings in the college-aged population is unknown. This study examines the effect of an 8-session-long mindfulness training on first-year college students’ daily experiences of stress and emotion regulation. Methods: Fifty-two first-year students were randomized to the mindfulness training or the waitlist-control group during the fall academic semester. Before, during and after the trial, students completed 10 days of ecological momentary assessments (EMAs), reporting on family and school or work stress, negative emotion, rumination, and interference by unwanted thoughts and emotions up to four times a day. Multilevel regression analysis compared levels of momentary stress and emotion regulation difficulties, as well as the strength of the moment-level association between stress and emotion regulation, by intervention condition, before, during and after the trial. Results: Controls showed an exacerbation of family stress-related negative emotion, rumination, and interference, across the fall semester. However, intervention youth showed stable levels of emotion regulation responses to family stress across the semester. Emotion regulation responses to school or work stress did not differ by intervention condition. Conclusions: Mindfulness training helps to prevent the depletion of emotion regulation capacity in this sample of relatively healthy first-year college students. EMAs allow the assessment of emotion regulation in the context of naturally occurring stress and enhance the specificity and external validity of evaluations of psychological interventions.Springer1868-8535http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-020-01358-X10.1007/S12671-020-01358-X& Emotional regulationEcological momentary assessments (EMA)NANANANANANANANANANA52Students6Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)USA
2816NoMiscellaneousStudy protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based intervention versus relaxation to reduce emotional exhaustion in medical students in France: the "Must prevent" study2020Baeza-Velasco C,Genty C,Jaussent I,Benramdane M,Courtet P,Olié EBMC PsychiatryBackground: Medical students are exposed to an emotionally exhausting training/work environment and to stressful academic demands. Consequently, psychopathologies, burnout and suicidal ideation are frequent in this population. These factors can also affect their empathy and quality of care. Therefore, the development and implementation of programs to promote resilience to stress specifically in medical students and the evaluation of their efficiency are a priority. Here, we describe the protocol of the first French study to assess the long-term effectiveness and acceptability of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) compared with relaxation training (RT) to reduce emotional exhaustion in medical students.NANAhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02529-9;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02529-910.1186/s12888-020-02529-9 & DepressionMontgomery Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS [2829])& Suicide intentionsColumbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale, (C-SSRS [30])NANANANANANANANA612Students8-weeksRandomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)France
2825NoJournal ArticleEvaluating the Effectiveness of a Brief Mindfulness Activity in University Students With Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Engagement2020Argento A,Simundic A,Mettler J,Mills DJ,Heath NLArchives of Suicide ResearchCurrent theoretical frameworks posit that engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is due to an inability to regulate one’s emotions. In turn, mindfulness-based interventions have been shown t...Routledge1543-6136https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/doi/abs/10.1080/13811118.2020.1841052;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2020.1841052;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3313559010.1080/13811118.2020.1841052Stress reliefVisual analogue scaleMindfulness LevelState Mindfulness ScaleNANANANANANANANA144Students1 dayPretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designCanada
2835NoMiscellaneousMindfulness and academic stress: A multicenter study in health science students2020Alvarado-Garcia PA,Soto-Vásquez MR,Alza-Salvatierra S,Alvarado-Cáceres E,Rodríguez-Guzmán Y,Rosales-Cerquin RLMedicina NaturistaThe purpose of this research work was to evaluate the effect of a mindfulness-based program on the academic stress levels of university students of Health Science. A multicenter, quasi-experimental, pretest and posttest study was conducted, with a sample of 116 students from a public university and a private university, divided at once into two control and experimental groups respectively. The SISCO inventory was used to measure the academic stress levels; which decreased in all experimental groups, after the intervention, finding statistical significance (p <0.05) in the results. Cohen's D scores were higher than 1.3, evidencing the effectiveness of the program. © 2020, Sociedad Europea De Medicina Naturista Clasica. Seccion Espanola. All rights reserved.NA15763080https://www-scopus-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85079200301&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&sid=c923a3979eaa27d6534e0423562114e5&sot=b&sdt=b&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28mindfulness+estudiantes%29&sl=38&sessionSearchId=c923a3979eaa27d6534e0423562114e5#metricsNAStress reliefSISCO Inventory of Academic StressNANANANANANANANANANA116StudentsNAQuasi-experimental, pretest and posttest studyQuasi-experimental studyPeru
2844NoJournal ArticleMindfulness based cognitive therapy to psychiatric resident of udayana university: Sanglah general hospital, denpasar2020Aji IP,Lesmana CB,Diniari NK,Aryani LN,Ardani GA,Ariani NK,Wahyuni AA,Setyawati L,Wardani IAInternational Journal of Pharmaceutical ResearchCountertransference often occurs to therapist when doing therapeutic relationship and could have negative impact on therapeutic process if it cannot be recognized and put to good use by the therapist, especially by Psychiatric Resident of Udayana University as prospective psychiatrist who is in the learning phase will experience countertransference a lot. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy that work with emphasis on a thorough and detailed awareness of the present moment was given to psychiatric resident of Udayana University for eight weeks because of the way it works. The experience of resident in undergoing therapy, the response to the relationship with countertransference, and the response to patients after undergoing therapy then examined. The study was conducted with a qualitative method with structured question at the end of session every week. The result were analyzed with the grounded theory method to saw participant’s experiences. From 42 resident, there were six participant who accepted to become participant. In second week’s session, four resident no longer continued therapy because it was hampered by daily activities. There were two participants who managed to follow the therapy to completion. Two participants were considered to be sufficient to represent the student because they had different cultural backgrounds. There were three participant’s experience in conducting therapy which include: “Not yet able to assess changes in countertransference in the initial phase because it has not been able to understand mindfulness for oneself”, “The ability to do therapy depends on the amount of exercise done”, and “Therapy is not based on the number of practice carried out but rather on changes in self in each therapy session”. There were obtained the effect of therapy on participant self-growth which includes two general categories, which include: “calmed and balanced because it can be being on present” and “More self-aware”. The effect of therapy on participant interaction with patient is found in two general categories, which include: “Recognizing and controlling participant’s self-response to patients” and “Understanding patients better”. Data validity checking is done by using data triangulation which confirms the analysis of the results to the participants and one student who have worked in a team with participants. Theory triangulation also used to looking at the results analysis.Advanced Scientific Research0975-2366http://dx.doi.org/10.31838/IJPR/2020.12.04.49010.31838/IJPR/2020.12.04.490CalmNAAwarnessNANANANANANANANANA2Students8Qualitative StudyQualitative StudyIndonesia
2856NoMiscellaneousMindfulness-based programme for residents: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial2020Aeschbach VM,Fendel JC,Göritz AS,Schmidt SBMJ OpenIntroductionResidency is a stressful phase associated with high prevalence of mental distress. Besides impaired personal health, mental distress in residents has an impact on the quality of patient care and produces economic costs. Therefore, there is demand for interventions that improve resident physicians’ mental health. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention that has been tailored to residents’ needs. Specifically, mindfulness has been supplemented by a focus on the concept of Muße.Methods and analysisThis study applies a randomised controlled multimethod design. Residents assigned to the intervention group will participate in an 8-week mindfulness course followed by a 4-month maintenance phase, whereas residents assigned to the control group will read text-based information about mindfulness on a weekly basis for the duration of 8weeks. The intervention is focussed on a transfer of learnt techniques into the daily routine and is targeted to promote residents’ self-care as well as on building empathic relationships. Participants will be assessed before, directly after the intervention, after the maintenance phase as well as at follow-up 6months after the intervention group completes the intervention. Assessments will consist of self-report measures,physiological data, qualitative interviews, third-party reports as well as implicit and projective measures and will focus on both psychopathology and salutogenesis. The primary outcome will be burnout. Data will be analysed using linear mixed modelling.Ethics and disseminationThe study was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical Center - University of Freiburg and is funded by the German Research Foundation as part of the interdisciplinary Collaborative Research Center ‘SFB Muße 1015’. The results of this study will be published in scientific journals and disseminated through the study’s website, and conferences.NANAhttp://bmjopen.bmj.com/;http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-03502510.1136/bmjopen-2019-035025Job strainGerman version of the Irritation Questionnaire.Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)AnxietyGerman translation of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4)NANANANANANANAResidents8Randomised controlled multimethod designRandomized controlled trial (RCT)germany
2865YESJournal ArticleMeasuring Meditation Progress with a Consumer-Grade EEG Device: Caution from a Randomized Controlled Trial2020Acabchuk RL,Simon MA,Low S,Brisson JM,Johnson BTMindfulness 2020 12:1Consumer-grade electroencephalogram (EEG) devices designed to assist people with meditation are gaining popularity. This study investigates EEG-based outcome measures provided by the Muse device and their relation to mindfulness scores and mental health in a meditation intervention. Fifty-three novice meditators (university students taking part in the registered clinical trial NCT03402009) were asked to meditate 10 min per day for 1 month, randomly assigned to use (1) meditation app (“app group”) or (2) meditation app, plus Muse neurofeedback device (“Muse group”). Pre- and post-intervention measures include Muse EEG scores assessed in a 5-min meditation and self-report scales of mindfulness and distress. A satisfaction survey and brief interview were conducted post-intervention. Baseline levels of mindfulness on MINDSENS were not correlated with “calm” scores on Muse. Following the 1-month meditation intervention, neither meditation group demonstrated improvements in EEG outcome measures according to the Muse app; in fact, the app group performed significantly worse at follow-up compared to baseline according to Muse’s user scores. Conversely, both groups showed significantly reduced distress and increased mindfulness scores following the intervention. Seventy-six percent of participants meditated at least three to four times per week, and both groups reported high levels of satisfaction with their meditation device (84% app group; 74% Muse group). Users, researchers, and clinicians should use caution in interpreting EEG outcomes on consumer-grade neurofeedback devices. Results suggest EEG outcome scores are not a proxy for mindfulness score, meditation practice, mental health status, or improvement over time in young adult novice meditators. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03402009Springer1868-8535https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12671-020-01497-1;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12671-020-01497-110.1007/S12671-020-01497-1Distress (caution)Muse EEGMindfulness LevelMuse EEGNANANANANANANANA53Students4Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designUSA
2870NoMiscellaneousA Practical Pilot Experience of a Mindfulness Program in University Teacher—Researcher Training2019Salas JE,Botero ACHuman Arenas 2019 3:3This paper is aimed at relating a practical pilot experience of mindfulness meditation in a university context. This pilot experience aims to acquire an incipient understanding of the potential of this practice as a training mechanism for teaching staff. A qualitative method was used to record the mindfulness meditation practice experiences of teachers and instructors being trained; the trainees comprise the teaching staff that coordinates a learning environment called Context and region: Introduction to systemic thinking at Ibague University. A qualitative record and analysis process of the narratives of the practice experience were conducted based on the voices of the participants. Categories demonstrating aspects perceived as favorable or annoying with regard to the practice of mindfulness emerged. Benefits are perceived by participants in the following order: awareness, well-being, gratitude, and attention toward the other and oneself in the relationship. The annoyances are referred to as perceptions of physical discomfort present at the time of practicing mindfulness. The experience allowed a practical pilot that was shared with the team supporting the incorporation of attitudes related to the teaching role, personal experience, and the composition of teaching staff.Springer2522-5804https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42087-019-00084-8;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S42087-019-00084-810.1007/S42087-019-00084-8AwarenessNAWell-beingNAGratitudeNAGratitudeNANANANANANATeachersNAQualitative StudyQualitative StudyColombia
2880YESMiscellaneousThe effect of dbt-informed mindfulness skills (what and how skills) and mindfulness-based stress reduction practices on test anxiety in college students: A mixed design study2019Lothes IJ,Mochrie K,Wilson M,Hakan RCurrent Psychology 2019 40:6Many studies have shown the anxiety reducing effects of extended mindfulness interventions; however, few have examined mindfulness interventions on test anxiety in a college student population. This study assesses the effects of Dialectical Behavior Therapy’s (DBT’s) mindfulness skills and Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction practices over an 8-week period on college students. Participants (N = 43), included randomly assigned college students that were either included in a mindfulness group (an 8-week mindfulness training course), an online mindfulness group, or acted as a waitlist control group (no intervention received). Participants were assessed on text anxiety, general anxiety, and mindfulness at the beginning, mid-way point, and end of the study. Participants in the mindfulness conditions showed significant within-group reductions in test anxiety, general anxiety, and all sub-scales of mindfulness, except Observe, while participants in the Wait-List Control group primarily did not show changes. This specific mindfulness intervention that taught the “What” and “How” skills of DBT’s mindfulness module can help students reduce test anxiety and general anxiety as well as increase individual levels of mindfulness.Springer1936-4733https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-019-00207-y;http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/S12144-019-00207-Y10.1007/S12144-019-00207-YTest anxietyNAGeneral anxietyNANANANANANANANANA43Students8Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designNA
2890NoMiscellaneousManejo del estrés; resultado de dos intervenciones: cognitivo conductual y yoga, en estudiantes irregulares de medicina2019León SO,Bosch ES,Rivas SA,Ávila CE,Medrano AL,Ruisánchez ARInvestigación en Educación MédicaIntroducción: El estrés durante la carrera de medicina para algunos estudiantes tiene un impacto negativo que repercute en un bajo rendimiento académico, síntomas de ansiedad y depresión. Las intervenciones psicológicas y de yoga han mostrado utilidad en la reducción de los síntomas psicopatológicos y el desarrollo de habilidades físicas y mentales. Objetivo: Evaluar si las intervenciones de un taller cognitivo conductual y un taller de yoga disminuyen el estrés, síntomas depresivos y ansiosos en estudiantes de la licenciatura de Médico Cirujano de la Facultad de Medicina. Método: Ensayo clínico controlado aleatorizado en la Facultad de Medicina C.U. El tipo de muestreo fue por conveniencia de los alumnos recursadores de al menos alguna asignatura de primero y segundo año de medicina. Se aplicaron los inventarios de Beck para ansiedad (BAI) y depresión (BDI), para seleccionar a los estudiantes con un nivel de severidad leve, la asignación de los alumnos fue aleatoria para cada una de las intervenciones, en las que al inicio y al final se utilizó el perfil de estrés de Novack para evaluar la reducción de estrés. Resultados: Se observó una reducción de los síntomas depresivos y ansiosos en ambas intervenciones (pNA2007-5057http://dx.doi.org/10.22201/facmed.20075057e.2019.30.176410.22201/facmed.20075057e.2019.30.1764DepressionBeck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)AnxietyBeck Depression Inventory (BDI)Stress ReliefNovack Stress ProfileNANANANANANA44Students8Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Randomized controlled trial (RCT)Mexico
2900NoJournal ArticleEffects of practicing aikido on mindfulness and anxiety in Costa Rican university students2019Hidalgo RC,Ramírez AB,Vargas GARetosThe purpose of the study was to examine the effect of practicing aikido on mindfulness and anxiety state in university students with no previous experience in martial arts. We used an intra-subjects quasi-experimental design with Pre and Post treatment measurements, with an active control group (physical education students). Mindfulness was measured with the MAAS scale, whereas anxiety with the Hamilton scale. A training program focused on learning and practicing various aikido techniques (waza), and the way in which these techniques (ukemi) should be received, was implemented during 11 weeks (2 weekly sessions of 2 hours each). Experimental group: n = 12, with ages between 18 and 62 years old. Control group: n = 12 students, with ages between 21 and 34 years old. Results: the practice of aikido showed significant effect sizes of moderate magnitude in both mindfulness and anxiety. Age does not explain these findings. Follow-up studies are recommended. © Federacion Espanola de Docentes de Educacion Fisica. All rights reserved.NANAhttps://www-scopus-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85060692501&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&sid=c923a3979eaa27d6534e0423562114e5&sot=b&sdt=b&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28mindfulness+estudiantes%29&sl=38&sessionSearchId=c923a3979eaa27d6534e0423562114e5NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
2910NoMiscellaneousIncidencia del mindfulness en el estrés académico en estudiantes universitarios: Un estudio controlado2019Guadalupe LA,Vásquez DE,Gómez JC,Sánchez AA,Guadalupe LA,Vásquez DE,Gómez JC,Sánchez AATerapia psicológicaMindfulness is a cognitive method that consists of giving full attention to the body, breathing, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, which is used to reduce stress, pain, anxiety and depression, which has some clinical evidence. Recently, its applications in the university field are being evaluated, with results that are not yet conclusive. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of an eight-week program of mindfulness in reducing academic stress in a group of 54 university students, with a randomized control group, and with pre-post-test measures using the CISCO Academic Stress Inventory. It was found that there are no statistically significant differences in the stress levels of the group that received the der mindfulnes program compared to those who did not receive the training. The result is congruent with some findings that do not attribute efficiency of mindfulness in the management of academic stress.Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica0718-4808http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-4808201900020011610.4067/S0718-48082019000200116& Academic StressCISCO Inventory of Academic StressNANANANANANANANANANA54Students8Quasi-experimental, randomized control group, and with pre-post-test measures Peru
2920NoMiscellaneousMeditación: análisis crítico de la experiencia de jóvenes universitarios en su vida cotidiana y salud2019Fernández K,Kühn J,López C,Moraga M,Ortega P,Morrison RCadernos Brasileiros de Terapia OcupacionalResumen Introducción La meditación ha sido una práctica estudiada desde diferentes perspectivas, en especial desde la salud, pero poco desde metodologías cualitativas que den cuenta de los procesos subjetivos de cambio en la vida cotidiana. Objetivo El presente estudio pretende dar cuenta de los significados que un grupo de estudiantes atribuye a la práctica de la meditación en relación a su vida cotidiana. Metódo Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indaga en la experiencia de estudiantes universitarios que participaron en un Curso de Formación General en el cual se realizaron 10 sesiones de meditación. La recolección de datos se realiza a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas, junto con la revisión de bitácoras personales en las que relatan su experiencia tras cada sesión. Resultados La práctica de la meditación tuvo implicancias en los ámbitos: personal, relacional y societal, destacando el bienestar que genera la meditación en el corto y mediano plazo, aportando al autocuidado, al autoconocimiento y al cambio de perspectiva respecto a sí mismos, a los otros y a la realidad social, favoreciendo acciones transformadoras en estos ámbitos. Conclusión La meditación realizó un quiebre en la vida cotidiana de estos sujetos, experiencia que habría favorecido un pensamiento crítico respecto a su realidad, lo que siendo complementado con otras estrategias desde la terapia ocupacional, podría contribuir a los procesos de intervención asumiendo un rol facilitador para la transformación de la propia vida y de la realidad social.Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Terapia Ocupacional2526-8910http://www.scielo.br/j/cadbto/a/dGpHhDD6GMPCNWKbKq99Lnn/?lang=es;http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/2526-8910.CTOAO167410.4322/2526-8910.CTOAO1674Well‑beingNASelf careNARelationshipsNANANANANANANA7StudentsNAQualitative from an interpretative paradigm, of an exploratory type. Chile
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0NAMiscellaneousMeditación: análisis crítico de la experiencia de jóvenes universitarios en su vida cotidiana y salud2019Fernández K,Kühn J,López C,Moraga M,Ortega P,Morrison RCadernos Brasileiros de Terapia OcupacionalResumen Introducción La meditación ha sido una práctica estudiada desde diferentes perspectivas, en especial desde la salud, pero poco desde metodologías cualitativas que den cuenta de los procesos subjetivos de cambio en la vida cotidiana. Objetivo El presente estudio pretende dar cuenta de los significados que un grupo de estudiantes atribuye a la práctica de la meditación en relación a su vida cotidiana. Metódo Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indaga en la experiencia de estudiantes universitarios que participaron en un Curso de Formación General en el cual se realizaron 10 sesiones de meditación. La recolección de datos se realiza a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas, junto con la revisión de bitácoras personales en las que relatan su experiencia tras cada sesión. Resultados La práctica de la meditación tuvo implicancias en los ámbitos: personal, relacional y societal, destacando el bienestar que genera la meditación en el corto y mediano plazo, aportando al autocuidado, al autoconocimiento y al cambio de perspectiva respecto a sí mismos, a los otros y a la realidad social, favoreciendo acciones transformadoras en estos ámbitos. Conclusión La meditación realizó un quiebre en la vida cotidiana de estos sujetos, experiencia que habría favorecido un pensamiento crítico respecto a su realidad, lo que siendo complementado con otras estrategias desde la terapia ocupacional, podría contribuir a los procesos de intervención asumiendo un rol facilitador para la transformación de la propia vida y de la realidad social.Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Terapia Ocupacional2526-8910http://www.scielo.br/j/cadbto/a/dGpHhDD6GMPCNWKbKq99Lnn/?lang=es;http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/2526-8910.CTOAO167410.4322/2526-8910.CTOAO1674NANANANANANANANANANANANANANA10NA NA
2940NAMiscellaneousMeditación: análisis crítico de la experiencia de jóvenes universitarios en su vida cotidiana y salud2019Fernández K,Kühn J,López C,Moraga M,Ortega P,Morrison RCadernos Brasileiros de Terapia OcupacionalIntroducción La meditación ha sido una práctica estudiada desde diferentes perspectivas, en especial desde la salud, pero poco desde metodologías cualitativas que den cuenta de los procesos subjetivos de cambio en la vida cotidiana. Objetivo El presente estudio pretende dar cuenta de los significados que un grupo de estudiantes atribuye a la práctica de la meditación en relación a su vida cotidiana. Metódo Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indaga en la experiencia de estudiantes universitarios que participaron en un Curso de Formación General en el cual se realizaron 10 sesiones de meditación. La recolección de datos se realiza a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas, junto con la revisión de bitácoras personales en las que relatan su experiencia tras cada sesión. Resultados La práctica de la meditación tuvo implicancias en los ámbitos: personal, relacional y societal, destacando el bienestar que genera la meditación en el corto y mediano plazo, aportando al autocuidado, al autoconocimiento y al cambio de perspectiva respecto a sí mismos, a los otros y a la realidad social, favoreciendo acciones transformadoras en estos ámbitos. Conclusión La meditación realizó un quiebre en la vida cotidiana de estos sujetos, experiencia que habría favorecido un pensamiento crítico respecto a su realidad, lo que siendo complementado con otras estrategias desde la terapia ocupacional, podría contribuir a los procesos de intervención asumiendo un rol facilitador para la transformación de la propia vida y de la realidad social.NA2526-8910http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/2526-8910.ctoAO167410.4322/2526-8910.ctoAO1674NANANANANANANANANANANANANANAYearNA NA
2950NoMiscellaneousEfectividad de intervención basada en modelo de Nola Pender en promoción de estilos de vida saludables de universitarios peruanos2019Esteba EF,Caycho-Rodríguez T,Arias SA,Guerra MR,Vilchez CC,Orci KC,Rivera JPRevista Cubana de EnfermeríaIntroducción: Los estilos de vida saludables previenen enfermedades y optimizan la salud del ser humano, mejor aún en los estudiantes universitarios quienes están vulnerables a cambiar actitudes, rutinas, hábitos y su estilo de vida. Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad de programa basado en modelo de Nola Pender para promover estilos de vida saludables en universitarios peruanos. Métodos: Estudio preexperimental con pretest y postest, en una universidad privada de Tarapoto, Perú, durante 2017. Participaron 869 estudiantes de siete carreras. Para conocer el estilo de vida de los universitarios, se utilizó el PESPS-I de Pender. La intervención tuvo una duración de ocho meses, se consideraron aspectos nutricionales, salud emocional y actividad física. En el análisis estadístico se realizó la prueba no paramétrica Wilcoxon, con nivel de significación de p = 0,05, además de la distribución de frecuencias absolutas, porcentajes, medias, rango promedio y desviación estándar. Resultados: Las medidas del postest fueron superiores a las del pretest demostrando la efectividad del programa para promover los estilos de vida saludables en el ejercicio, la responsabilidad en salud y el manejo del estrés (p 0,05). Conclusiones: El programa para promover los estilos de vida saludables en universitarios peruanos de 16 a 22 años demostró ser efectivo para mejorar el ejercicio, la responsabilidad en salud y el manejo del estrés.NANAhttp://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0864-03192019000400009NAHealthy lifestyle, exerciseNA
Healthy lifestyle, responsibility in health
NAStress ReliefNANANANANANANA869Students32Pre-experimental study with pretest and posttest Peru
2960NoMiscellaneousEfectividad de un programa de intervención en trastornos mentales en universitarios de la Facultad de Medicina UNHEVAL2019Cotera SL,Alvarado AUNAIntroducción: Los trastornos mentales (TM) aquejan a la población en general y no distinguen edad, sexo, ni condición social. Existe una elevada prevalencia de ansiedad y depresión en los estudiantes de medicina, debido a la exigencia en su formación. Mindfulness es un programa con suficiente evidencia en el tratamiento de TM. El objetivo principal fue determinar la efectividad de Mindfulness en TM en universitarios de la facultad de medicina UNHEVAL, 2019. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuasiexperimental, longitudinal, analítico, y prospectivo, constituido por dos fases: la primera (detección de los casos) con una muestra de 200 estudiantes, utilizamos el Inventario de Ansiedad de Beck (BAI) e Inventario de Depresión de Beck (BDI), las asociaciones significativas se midieron mediante Chi cuadrado y H. de Kruskal Wallis, y la segunda fase (intervención), de 15 participantes, se eligió el programa Mindfulness (MBSR) de 10 sesiones, midiendo su efectividad mediante un post-test de BAI y BDI, con la prueba de Wilcoxon. Se utilizó el software estadístico SPSS v.25,0. Resultados: La media de la edad fue 22,09 +/- 3,44 años. Se demostró una alta efectividad del programa de intervención para ansiedad (p=0,001) y depresión (p=0,001). Se encontró asociación significativa entre la ansiedad con la edad (p=0,001) y disfuncionalidad familiar (p=0,008); mientras que la depresión se asoció con el género (p=0,02) y disfuncionalidad familiar (p=0,001). Conclusiones: El programa resultó efectivo en los TM. Ser mujer, más joven y tener algún nivel de disfuncionalidad familiar condiciona a un mayor riesgo de presentar TM.NANANANAAnxietyBeck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)DepressionBeck Depression Inventory (BDI)NANANANANANANANA15Students8Quasi-experimental, longitudinal, analytical study, and
prospective
 Peru
2970NoMiscellaneousEvidencias psicométricas de una versión breve de la mindful awareness attention scale en estudiantes universitarios2019Caycho-Rodríguez,Cadena G,Guadalupe O,Gallegos ARevista Argentina de Ciencias del ComportamientoPsychometric evidence of a brief version of the mindful awareness attention scale in college students. In recent years, there has been an increase in interventions based on mindfulness to reduce the psychological problems of college students. Therefore, it is necessary to have adequate tools to measure it. Considering this gap, the objective of this study was to perform a psychometric analysis of the five-item version of the Mindful Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS-5) in a sample of 398 Peruvian college students with an average age of 21.14 years (SD = 2.97). To this end, participants were given a battery of tests that included the MAAS-5, WHO-Five Well-Being Index, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-2 and the Garcia's Anger Proneness Scale. The results indicate that the structure of a factor of the MAAS-5 presents a good fit to the data and an adequate internal consistency. On the other hand, the MAAS-5 shows correlations theoretically consistent with depression, anxiety, anger and well-being, and factorial invariance with respect to sex. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence that support the use of MAAS-5 asan instrument with evidence of validity, reliability and invariance to measure full attention in college students in PeruNA1852-4206NANANANANANANANANANANANANANA398StudentsTopicNA Peru
2980NoJournal ArticleEffects of guided mindfulness meditation on anxiety and stress in a pre-healthcare college student population: a pilot study2019Burgstahler MS,Stenson MCJournal of American College HealthObjective: To identify the effects of guided mindfulness meditation on anxiety and stress in pre-healthcare college students. Participants: Students (n = 33, age 19–22 years) were tested between Se...Taylor & Francis1940-3208https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07448481.2019.1590371;http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2019.1590371;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3093908110.1080/07448481.2019.1590371Mindfulness level Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ, 39 items, Michalak et al., 2016). AnxietyState-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)Stress ReliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)Trait anxietyState-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)NANANANA33Students8Repeated measures experimental design USA
2990NoMiscellaneousMindfulness y experiencias psicóticas en estudiantes universitarios2018Palacios-García V,León-del-Barco B,Mendo-Lázaro S,Saavedra-Macías J,Felipe-Castaño E,Palacios-García V,León-del-Barco B,Mendo-Lázaro S,Saavedra-Macías J,Felipe-Castaño EAnales de PsicologíaThe study of the relation between psychotic experiences and mindfulness in the general population is linked to research into factors of risk and protection against the development of a psychotic disorder. This study looks into the presence of psychotic experiences in a sample of university students and whether there is any variation according to gender. It also analyzes the predictive and discriminant relation of mindfulness with these experiences. The sample consisted of 526 university students (72.8% women) with a mean age of 21.39 years (SD = 3.53). The results showed the presence of psychotic experiences with differing levels of intensity, with variations according to gender, and an inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychotic experiences. Results indicated that students with high scores in psychotic experiences had lower scores in mindfulness. Our findings imply that mindfulness may be a factor of protection against psychotic experiences and its training may have a role to play in the development and implementation of preventive and early intervention pro-grams in risk groups in the general and clinical population.Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia0212-9728http://dx.doi.org/10.6018/ANALESPS.34.2.29017110.6018/ANALESPS.34.2.290171Psychotic experiencesNANANANANANANANANANANA526StudentsTopicNOT REPORTED Spain
3000NoMiscellaneousVista de Una experiencia de atención plena (mindfulness): nivel de estrés y ansiedad de los estudiantes2018Guerrero SC,Márqueza JL,Castañedaa LM,Solera YK,Rojasa M,Ramíreza PCRepertorio de Medicina y CirugíaIntroducción: atención, conciencia plena o mindfulness en idioma pali “sati” significa “rememorar o recordar”. Algunas intervenciones basadas en mindfulness muestran mejora en problemas de salud mental y del bienestar psicológico en los estudiantes y personal de salud. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de estrés y ansiedad en los alumnos de práctica I del programa de instrumentación quirúrgica, antes y después de una experiencia de atención plena mindfulness. Métodos: estudio cuasi experimental con participación inicial de 42 estudiantes de los cuales 42.8% (n=18 permanecieron. En la preprueba se aplicó el cuestionario de personalidad big five, en las pre y pospruebas se evaluaron con la escala de estrés percibido (EEP) el nivel de estrés y de ansiedad con el inventario de Beck (BAI) y en la posprueba se evalúo la experiencia mindfulness con el cuestionario five facetmindfulness.Resultados: en la posprueba hubo niveles de estrés iguales a la preprueba (RIQ: 49) (p: 0.79) y más bajos de ansiedad (RIQ:22 / RIQ:16) (p:0.004). Conclusiones: los participantes vivieron la experiencia (Me= 114); los programas basados en mindfulness generan una mejor percepción a nivel intra e interpersonalNANAhttps://revistas.fucsalud.edu.co/index.php/repertorio/article/view/206/279NAAnxietyBeck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)Stress reliefPerceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS10; Cohen and Williamson, 1988)NANANANANANANANA42StudentsNAQuasi-experimental designQuasi-experimental studyColombia
3010NoJournal ArticleEffects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention on emotional regulation and levels of mindfulness in senior students2018Chiodelli R,Mello LT,Jesus SN,Andretta IPsicologia: Reflexão e CríticaAbstract Mindfulness-based interventions have been applied in diverse populations and achieved mental health benefits. This study examined the effects of a brief mindfulness program for emotional regulation and levels of mindfulness on senior students in Brazil. The intervention consisted of six weekly meetings attended by 30 participants. It is a pre-experimental research, with pre- and post-test comparative and correlation measurements. The preliminary results, which relied on parametrical and non-parametrical tests, revealed a reduction in total emotional regulation difficulties (p = 0.0001; r = – 0.55). Also, there was an increase in the levels of mindfulness in the subtests for both dimensions under evaluation: “Awareness” (p = 0.0001; d =0.77) and “Acceptance” (p = 0.048; d =0.37). By associating the amount of meditative practices performed by students with the variables, a significant positive correlation was found with the mindfulness dimension “Awareness” (rP = 0.422; p = 0.020), and there was a significant negative correlation with Difficulties in emotion regulation (rS = – 0.478; p = 0.008) and with its respective subscales “Non-acceptance” (rS = – 0.654; p = 0.0001) and “Clarity” (rS = – 0.463; p = 0.010). In conclusion, the application of a brief mindfulness-based intervention is promising in Brazilian university contexts; moreover, it can bring benefits to students, e.g., an increase in emotion regulation as well as in levels of mindfulness. We suggest that further research should use an experimental design and follow-up.Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul0102-7972http://www.scielo.br/j/prc/a/fpQ6VTV9kRtKJ4xHkZSf3Xc/?lang=en;http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/S41155-018-0099-710.1186/S41155-018-0099-7Emotional regulationDifficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS-36), European Portuguese adaptationMindfulnessThe Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale(PHLMS), brazilian adaptationAcceptanceThe Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale(PHLMS), brazilian adaptationNANANANANANA30Students6Pre-experimental research, with pre- and post-test Brazil
3020NoJournal ArticleEfeito da Meditação Focada no Estresse e Mindfulness Disposicional em Universitários2018Carpena MX,Menezes CBPsicologia: Teoria e PesquisaMeditation based interventions have been used in universities to reduce stress. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a six-week focused meditation-training on stress (using Lipp´s Inventory of Stress Symptoms) and dispositional mindfulness (using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire - Brazilian version) in college students from southern Brazil. A nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the experimental group and the waitlist control group before and after the training. Compared with controls, the experimental group demonstrated significant improvements for stress, and increases in mindfulness scores, particularly for the facets describe and non-react. The results suggest that meditative practice may be an alternative for interventions aiming to tackle stress and enhance mindfulness skills in the university context.Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Brasília0102-3772http://www.scielo.br/j/ptp/a/VwGgLVHZckm76BRMKkwDgpq/?lang=pt;http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102.3772E344110.1590/0102.3772E3441Stress reliefLipp´s Inventory of Stress SymptomsDispositional mindfulnessFive Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire - Brazilian versionNANANANANANANANA56Students6Nonrandomized controlled trial
Pre post test
 Brazil
3030NoMiscellaneousEffect of a mindfulness-based program on academic stress levels of university students2018Alvarado-García PA,Álvarez JC,Soto-Vásquez MRMedicina NaturistaThe aim of this study was to determine the influence of a mindfulness-based program on the academic stress levels of university students. A quasi-experimental, pre-test and post-test study was carried out, with a sample of 96 students, divided into an experimental group and a control group. For the measurement of academic stress levels, the SISCO Inventory of Academic Stress was used. The levels of academic stress decreased in the experimental group, after the intervention, finding statistical significance (p <0.05) in the results. Cohen’s D scores were higher than 1.5, evidencing the effectiveness of the program. © 2018, Sociedad Europea De Medicina Naturista Clasica. Seccion Espanola. All rights reserved.NANAhttps://www-scopus-com.ezproxy.uniandes.edu.co/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85049301749&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&sid=c923a3979eaa27d6534e0423562114e5&sot=b&sdt=b&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28atenci%C3%B3n+plena+estudiantes%29&sl=38&sessionSearchId=c923a3979eaa27d6534e0423562114e5NAAcademic StressSISCO Inventory of Academic StressNANANANANANANANANANA96StudentsNAPretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designPeru
3040NoMiscellaneousEfectos de la meditación sobre el estrés académico en estudiantes de Licenciatura en Fisioterapia2017Gómez NE,Cabrera JM,Camacho MÁ,Gutiérrez MCEuropean Scientific Journal, ESJIntroduction: Stress is one of the most common psychological disorders. In Mexico, a study of academic stress in college students found that a high percentage of students had experienced intense anxiety (73.4%). Research on physical therapy students at the Riphah Rehabilitation Science Center show that the prevalence of perceived stress is 88%.Meditation programs in college students had resulted beneficial for the management of stress, depression and anxiety. Objective: To determine the effects of meditation on academic stress in first semester students of the degree in physiotherapy of the Autonomous University of Querétaro. Methodology: Quasi-experimental study. Participants: Thirty-six firstsemester students of the physiotherapy degree from the Autonomous University of Querétaro, a control group of 17 students and 19 in the experimental group. The experimental group was intervened for 8 weeks with guided meditation sessions with duration of 20 to 25 minutes from Monday to Friday. Both control and experimental groups were evaluated through the Academic Stress Inventory before and after the intervention program. Results: There is a significant reduction in stress levels using meditation in the experimental group (p = 0.0002). For the control group, no significant difference was found in stress p = 0.093. Conclusion: An 8-week meditation program has healthy effects on the academic stress of undergraduate physical therapy students.NA1857-7431http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n19p9710.19044/esj.2017.v13n19p97Stress reliefAcademic Stress InventoryNANANANANANANANANANA39Students8Quasi-experimental design.
Pre and post test.
 Mexico
3050NoMiscellaneousIncorporación del mindfulness en el aula: Un estudio piloto con estudiantes universitarios2017Cuevas-Toro AM,Díaz-Batanero C,Delgado-Rico E,Vélez-Toral MUniversitas PsychologicaThe aim of this pilot study was to analyze the effects of a brief mindfulness program adapted to the academic context, to acknowledge the influence on the level of mindfulness (MAAS), experiential avoidance (AAQII), anxiety (STAI) and life satisfaction (SWLS). The sample consisted of 115 college students. After participating in the programme, students showed significantly higher levels of life satisfaction and state anxiety and no differences were found in mindfulness, experiential avoidance and trait anxiety. However, the increase in life satisfaction was related to the increased level of mindfulness at the end of the program (which concurred with the beginning of the exams). In conclusion, a brief mindfulness program improved life satisfaction even in a period of high anxiety, such as the exams period.Pontificia Universidad Javeriana1657-9267http://dx.doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.upsy16-4.imae10.11144/Javeriana.upsy16-4.imaeLife satisfactionMindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Spain Adaptation(- State anxiety)State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-E y R)NANANANANANANANA115Students7Pretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designSpain
3060NoMiscellaneousLa práctica de la atención plena en estudiantes universitarios. Dificultades y facilidades percibidas Mindfulness Practices in University Students. Perception of Positive and Negative Aspects2017Canales-Lacruz I,Rovira GFederación Española de Asociaciones de Docentes de Educación Física FEADEFResumen. Este artículo examina las dificultades y facilidades percibidas por el alumnado universitario durante la realización de prácticas motrices introyectivas (PMI), las cuales, se distinguen por estimular el autoconocimiento a través de la acción motriz consciente. Se realizó un análisis de contenido de los diarios de prácticas de 42 estudiantes (19,8±1,42 años) de las sesiones de PMI incluidas en la diplomatura de maestro en educación infantil de la facultad de ciencias humanas y de la educación de Huesca de la Universidad de Zaragoza, España. La variable independiente fueron las PMI programadas y las variables dependientes los beneficios y dificultades experimentados. Se utilizó el software NUDIST 6. Los resultados mostraron que las PMI proporcionaron bienestar al alumnado, en forma de alivio de tensiones, de ensimismamiento (máxima implicación en el momento presente) y de darse cuenta (aumento de la sensibilidad y de la autorregulación), rasgos que conforman las competencias sociales y personales tan necesarios y relevantes para lograr el bienestar docente. Las dificultades encontradas fueron la atención externa, la agitación mental, el malestar y la vergüenza. Palabras clave: atención plena; educación física; análisis de contenido; dificultad de la tarea; beneficios educativos; experiencia emocional. Abstract. This article examines the positive and negative aspects of introjective psychomotor practices (PMI) as perceived by physical education students. The aim of PMI is to stimulate self-awareness through conscious motor actions. The study comprised a content analysis of teaching practice logbooks of 42 students (average age 19.8 ±1.42 years), concerning PMI included in the Diploma in Infant Education offered by the Faculty of Human Sciences and Education of the University of Zaragoza in Spain. The independent variable was the series of PMI and the dependent variables were benefits and difficulties perceived by the students. NUDIST 6 software was used for data analysis. Results show that PMI improve students' welfare through stress relief, introspection (maximum self-implication in the present moment) and self-realization (an increase in sensory awareness and self-regulation). These are aspects that shape social and personal competences and are necessary and relevant for achieving educational wellbeing. Negative aspects concerned external attention, mental agitation, discomfort and embarrassment. Introducción La atención plena (mindfulness) es la capacidad de focalizar la percepción en el aquí y ahora, la escucha sin emitir juicios, tan sólo observándose (Lagardera, 2007; Lagardera &Lavega, 2003; Kabat-Zinn, 2013; Rovira, 2010). Las prácticas motrices introyectivas (PMI) (Lagardera y Lavega, 2003; Lagardera, 2007) contribuyen a desarrollar la atención plena; ya que su lógica interna (Parlebas, 2001) se caracteriza por «la puesta en práctica de una motricidad consciente, es decir, buscar el autoconocimiento, el dominio corporal o el equilibrio psicosomático a partir de la acción motriz consciente»(Lagardera y Lavega, 2003:128). La lógica interna de cualquier práctica motriz es el «sistema de rasgos pertinentes de una situación motriz y de las consecuencias que entraña para la realización de la acción motriz correspondiente» (Parlebas, 2001, p. 302); se trata del sistema de obligaciones que impone el regla-mento, norma o convención de cualquier práctica motriz. Ésta determi-na los rasgos distintivos de las relaciones intrasistémicas entre: los participantes, el espacio, el tiempo y los objetos (Lagardera y Lavega, 2003). Atendiendo al criterio de interacción entre los participantes, las PMI pueden realizarse sin interacción, en el caso de las situaciones psicomotrices, o en parejas o grupos, tratándose de prácticas sociomotrices de cooperación introyectiva. Así entonces, son numerosas las prácticas que pueden denominar-se PMI, ejemplos como el yoga, el taichí, el chi-kung, la eutonía, algunas técnicas de relajación basadas en la atención o diferentes formas de meditación (zazen, samatha, vipassana, etc), entre otras muchas. Mé-todos, disciplinas o técnicas corporales con una lógica interna cuyo rasgo común es la puesta en marcha de la motricidad consciente (Lagardera y Lavega, 2003). Estimulando la toma de conciencia de nuestras emo-ciones, pensamientos y sensaciones (Kabat-ZinnNAwww.retos.orgNAStress reliefNAIntrospectionNAself-realization (an increase in sensory awareness and self-regulation)NANANANANANANA42Students6Individual report diaries analyzed Spain
3070NAJournal ArticlePsychometric properties of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in Colombian undergraduates2016Ruiz FJ,Suárez-Falcón JC,Riaño-Hernández DSuma PsicológicaThe Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale is one of the most popular instruments to measure mindfulness, and this construct is conceived as unidimensional, emphasizing attention/awareness as its essential aspect. This study aimed to analyze the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the MAAS in a Colombian sample of 762 undergraduates. Data were very similar to those obtained in other validation studies of the MAAS. A confirmatory factor analysis found that the expected one-factor structure showed a good fit to the data. The MAAS had excellent internal consistency, and showed theoretically coherent correlations with emotional symptoms, automatic negative thoughts, psychological inflexibility, and life satisfaction. Participants who could have a psychopathological problem because they exceeded the cut-off of the General Health Questionnaire, 12 scored lower on the MAAS than participants who scored below this cut-off. In conclusion, the MAAS seems to be a reliable and valid measure of mindfulness in Colombian undergraduates.No longer published by Elsevier0121-4381http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.SUMPSI.2016.02.00310.1016/J.SUMPSI.2016.02.003NANANANANANANANANANANANA762StudentsTopicNOT REPORTED Colombia
3080NoReportEstudio piloto de un modelo grupal de meditación de atención plena (Mindfulness) de manejo de ansiedad2015Silva KB,Infanzón YPRevista Puertorriqueña de PsicologíaSe ha encontrado que el programa MBSR (Kabat-Zinn 2013) es efectivo reduciendo síntomas de ansiedad y de estrés en diversas poblaciones. El objetivo de éste estudio piloto fue evaluar la viabilidad, aceptación e impacto de una intervención grupal adaptada culturalmente para estudiantes universitarios predominantemente puertorriqueños. Se formaron dos grupos de participantes (n=13) los que se reunieron por espacio de ocho semanas. Cada reunión tuvo una duración de 90 minutos en las que se enseñaron y practicaron estrategias de atención plena y se asignaron ejercicios de práctica diaria para el hogar. Se tomaron medidas pre y post para medir las siguientes variables: estrés académico, depresión y ansiedad generalizada (CCAPS-34), afecto positivo y negativo (PANAS), atención plena (MAAS), estrés percibido (EEP-14), así como bienestar psicológico (EBP). Los estudiantes evaluaron de manera positiva el programa y ofrecieron recomendaciones para mejorarlo. Se observó un aumento significativo en atención plena (z=-2.71, p<.007), en afecto positivo en la semana (z=-2.98, p<.003), auto aceptación (z=-1.96, p<.05) y en propósito en la vida (z=-2.17, p< .03). También se observó una disminución significativa en ansiedad generalizada (z=-2.28, p<.02) y estrés académico (z=-2.49, p<.01). EMMA muestra ser una herramienta grupal viable y aceptada por estudiantes universitarios en Puerto Rico y que ofrece resultados favorables para reducción de ansiedad generalizada y estrés académico.NANAhttps://repsasppr.net/index.php/reps/article/view/260NAAnxietyCCAPS-34Stress reliefCCAPS-34
EEP-14
NANANANANANANANA13Students8Quasi-experimental design.
Pre and post test.
 Puerto Rico
3090NAJournal ArticleAtención Plena: Validación del Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) en estudiantes universitarios chilenos2015Schmidt C,Vinet EVTerapia psicológicaThis study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in university students from the city of Temuco, Chile (n = 399). The FFMQ is a self-report test consisting of 39 items, which measures the general tendency to proceed with Mindfulness by using five skills: Observation, Description, Acting with Awareness, Non-judging of inner experience and Non-reactivity to inner experience. The design is descriptive correlational of unique group. The results show adequate reliability and Mindfulness association with personality dimensions of the Five Factor Model of Costa and McCrae, with the Self-Actualization of humanistic theories and an inverse relation to negative emotional states ofdepression, anxiety and stress. Analyzes show that the Chilean version of FFMQ has adequate psychometric properties for use in Chilean university students and discriminates between meditators and non-meditators.Sociedad Chilena de Psicología Clínica0718-4808http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-4808201500020000410.4067/S0718-48082015000200004NANANANANANANANANANANANA399StudentsTopicDescriptive correlational, single group Chile
3100NOJournal ArticleMindfulness en estudiantes de medicina2015Oro P,Esquerda M,Viñas-Salas J,Soler-González J,Pifarré JFEM: Revista de la Fundación Educación MédicaResumen.\r\nNumerosos estudios muestran altos niveles de estrés y ansiedad en estudiantes de medicina y profesionales \r\nsanitarios, describiéndose múltiples factores relacionados (altos niveles de exigencia, contacto con la enfermedad y el \r\nsufrimiento), así como su resistencia a solicitar ayuda en caso de que la necesiten. Estos estresores se han asociado con \r\nagotamiento emocional, disminución de la empatía, consumo de tóxicos y riesgo de presentar problemas de salud men-\r\ntal. Se han definido diversos programas para mejorar el bienestar de los estudiantes. La presente revisión analiza la prác-\r\ntica del \r\nmindfulness\r\n (atención plena) como ayuda para disminuir el \r\nburnout\r\n y la fatiga por compasión, incrementar las \r\nhabilidades de autocuidado, disminuir los niveles de ansiedad y mejorar el bienestar general en este colectivo. La práctica \r\ndel \r\nmindfulness\r\n se ha relacionado asimismo con la mejora de las habilidades y competencias relacionadas con una buena \r\npráctica médica: ser consciente de los propios contenidos de consciencia, ponerse en posición de observador, capacidad \r\nempática, escucha activa, estar presente, metaconocimiento y metaconsciencia de lo que está ocurriendo en la interac-\r\nción terapéutica y establecimiento de la alianza terapéutica (junto con su componente vincular). La revisión de la biblio-\rŋía apoya que se introduzca la práctica del \r\nmindfulness \r\nen el currículo formativo de los futuros médicos.\r\nPalabras clave.\r\n Autocuidado. Educación médica. Estrés. Estudiantes de medicina. \r\nMindfulness.Fundación Educación Médica2014-9832http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S2014-9832201500060000310.4321/S2014-98322015000600003BurnoutNASelf-careNAAnxietyNAWell-beingNAHabilidades y competencias relacionadas con una buena práctica médica: ser consciente de los propios contenidos de consciencia, ponerse en posición de observador, capacidad empática, escucha activa, estar presente, metaconocimiento y metaconsciencia de lo que está ocurriendo en la interac-ción terapéutica y establecimiento de la alianza terapéutica (junto con su componente vincular)NANANANANANASystematic reviewLiterature ReviewNA
3110NoJournal ArticlePercepción del tiempo: resultados de una intervención grupal breve para el cambio del perfil temporal2014Oyanadel C,Buela-Casal G,Araya T,Olivares C,Vega HSuma PsicológicaLa teoría de la perspectiva del tiempo de Zimbardo (1999) plantea una clasificación de las dimensiones de la orientación temporal, medidas con el Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), la cual propone, por una parte, que si se tiene una actitud positiva y moderada hacia el pasado, el presente y el futuro, se puede desarrollar mayor bienestar y buena salud tanto mental como física, mientras que actitudes negativas o extremas reflejarían pautas de vida poco saludables. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar el efecto de una intervención grupal breve para la modificación del perfil temporal. Para este fin, se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental con grupo control en una muestra de 28 estudiantes universitarios; 14 de ellos formaron el grupo experimental y 14 formaron el grupo control. Los resultados muestran que la intervención realizada al grupo experimental modificó la orientación temporal de los participantes hacia un perfil equilibrado. Para terminar, se concluye que, con una intervención breve y grupal que potencie un pasado positivo y un futuro y un presente más saludables, es posible lograr un perfil equilibrado. Posteriores estudios podrían evaluar el impacto de la modificación del perfil temporal en población clínica.NA0121-4381http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0121-4381(14)70001-310.1016/S0121-4381(14)70001-3Time perspectiveSpanish version of ZTPINANANANANANANANANANA28Students4Quasi-experimental design with a control group Chile
3120NoMiscellaneousValidity evidence of the brazilian version of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ)2014de Barros VV,Kozasa EH,de Souza IC,Ronzani TMPsicologia: Teoria e PesquisaIn order to assess the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the FFMQ, 395 participants divided into smokers, people from the general population, college students, and meditators answered the FFMQ and the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS). An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted and the reliability was assessed. The FFMQ-BR consists of seven factors and all of them showed good internal consistency. Evidence of the construct and criterion validity was obtained by a significant correlation between the FFMQ-BR scores and well-being and by a significant difference between the scores of the meditators and the other participants on the FFMQ-BR. This study may help in providing subsidies to the progress of research in the topic by examining the empirical relationships between Mindfulness and mental health.Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Brasília0102-3772http://www.scielo.br/j/ptp/a/HHtH6hLBjLDMsCkYSwWKJCk/?lang=en;http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-3772201400030000910.1590/S0102-37722014000300009NANANANANANANANANANANANA395Smokers, people from the general population, college students, and meditatorsTopicNA Brazil
3130NAJournal ArticleMeditação na universidade: a motivação de alunos da UFRGS para aprender meditação2012Menezes CB,Fiorentin B,Bizarro LPsicologia Escolar e EducacionalSitting and silent meditation training has been increasingly used in educational contexts. In this study we propose to investigate the interest and motivation of undergraduate students to take part in a sitting and silent meditation training. An online survey has been carried out, using a sociodemographic questionnaire with an open question about the motivation to participate in the training, and the Self Report Questionnaire to identify minor psychiatric disorders. 524 students, from 42 courses participated (M= 25 years, DP=5,16, 64,3% female). Most were single (88%), with an income between 1 and 5 minimum wage (51,8%), from different religions (n=20), and without psychiatric symptoms (73%). The main reasons for training meditation were emotional benefi ts (25,59%), interest in the subject (24,67%), cognitive benefi ts (16,02%), and curiosity and interest in the research proposal (15,11%). The interest in meditation is not restricted to undergraduates with specifi c sociodemographic characteristics or with a certain belief or psychiatric problems.Associação Brasileira de Psicologia Escolar e Educacional (ABRAPEE)2175-3539http://www.scielo.br/j/pee/a/vyRqD9wJVKHfmQmxJrvx7bF/?lang=pt;http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-8557201200020001410.1590/S1413-85572012000200014NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA Brazil
3140NAMiscellaneousModification of personality variables through application of a psycho-educational program of full consciousness (mindfulness) in university students2011Justo CF,Moreno AM,Granados MS,la Fuente Arias MAvances en Psicología Latinoamericana; Vol. 29, Núm. 1 (2011); 136 - 147El presente estudio examina los efectos de un programa psicoeducativo de entrenamiento en conciencia plena (mindfulness) sobre determinadas variables de personalidad en estudiantes universitarios. Se utilizó un diseño de tipo cuasiexperimental de comparación de grupos, control (n = 27) y experimental (n = 26), con medición pretest-postest, para comprobar los efectos del programa de entrenamiento. A ambos grupos se aplicaron la Escala de impulsividad de Barrat (BiS-11), el Cuestionario de Aceptación y Acción (AAQ), la Escala de Evitación y Ansiedad Social (SAD) y el Perfil de Estados de Ánimo (PomS). Los resultados muestran cambios estadísticamente significativos en las variables impulsividad, evitación experiencial, evitación social, ansiedad social, tensión y fatiga al comparar las puntuaciones medias postest del grupo control y experimental.Universidad del Rosario1868-7075https://repository.urosario.edu.co/handle/10336/16023;http://dx.doi.org/10.2/JQUERY.MIN.JS;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2524640310.2/JQUERY.MIN.JSNANANANANANANANANANANANA53StudentsTopicQuasi-experimental comparison of groups with pretest-post measurement NA
3150NoJournal ArticleModificación de variables de personalidad mediante la aplicación de un programa psicoeducativo de conciencia plena (mindfulness) en estudiantes universitarios2011Justo CF,Moreno AM,Granados MS,la Fuente Arias MAvances en Psicología LatinoamericanaThis study examines the effects in university students of a psycho-educational program in full awareness (mindfulness) on certain personality variables. A quasi-experimental (group comparison) design with pretest and postest measurements was employed in an experimental (n = 26) and a control group (n = 27). Barratt impulsiveness Scale (BiS- 11), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ), Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were applied to experimental and control groups. The results show statistically significant changes in impulsivity variables, experiential avoidance, social avoidance, social anxiety, tension and fatigue when comparing the posttest mean scores of the groups.NA2145-4515http://dx.doi.org/10.12804/APL10.12804/APLImpulsivity Barratt impulsiveness Scale (BiS-11)Experiential avoidanceAcceptance and Action QuestionnaireSocial anxietySocial Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD)Social avoidanceSocial Avoidance and Distress Scale (SAD)TensionProfile of Mood States (POMS)FatigueProfile of Mood States (POMS)53Students10Quasi-experimental comparison of groups with pretest-post measurement Spain
3160NoMiscellaneousEl chi-kung para el mejoramiento del aprendizaje en estudiantes de segundo año de medicina2010Tabio NI,Moreno IC,Lin TH,Alcaraz II,Román MBMEDISANSe realizó una intervención educativa para modificar el nivel de atención, concentración y memoria en 14 estudiantes de segundo año de la carrera de medicina en el Policlínico Docente Universitario "José Martí" de Santiago de Cuba, mediante la utilización de técnicas de chi-kung, desde el 12 de octubre del 2008 hasta el 12 de junio del 2009. A los participantes se les caracterizó psicológicamente, de manera individual y con su consentimiento informado, para medir: coeficiente de inteligencia, nivel de atención, concentración y memoria, antes y después de la intervención, con lo cual se confirmó la utilidad de las técnicas de relajación y meditación en el mejoramiento del aprendizaje.NANAhttp://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?pid=S1029-30192010000700008&script=sci_arttext&tlng=enNAAttentionNA
Associative and mediate memory state
NAAcademic resultsNANANANANANANA14StudentsYearPretest–posttest designPretest–post-test designCuba
3170NoMiscellaneousMindfulness and Meditation at University - 10 Years of the Munich Model2010de Bruin A,Sandbothe M,Albrecht RNANAMunich ModelNAhttps://doi.org/10.14361/9783839456965;http://dx.doi.org/10.14361/978383945696510.14361/9783839456965NANANANANANANANANANANANANANATopicNA NA
3180NoMiscellaneousEfectos de un programa de entrenamiento en conciencia plena (mindfulness) en el estado emocional de estudiantes universitarios2010Arias JF,Justo CF,Mañas IEstudios sobre EducaciónThe purpose of this experimental study, using pretest-postest-follow-up measurements, with one experimental group and one control group, was to verify whether a mindfulness programme produces a reduction in levels of emotional tiredness and burnout, and improves the levels of academic engagement in a group of university psychology students. In the experimental group we can observe a significant decrease in emotional tiredness and burnout and a significant increase in academic engagement. Follow-up measures showed that these results were maintained for six months after the termination of the intervention in the experimental group. The importance and usefulness of mindfulness techniques in the educative system is discussed.NA2386-6292https://revistas.unav.edu/index.php/estudios-sobre-educacion/article/view/4579;http://dx.doi.org/10.15581/004.19.457910.15581/004.19.4579Emotional exhaustionEmotional Exhaustion ScaleBurnout
Burnout-Engagement Questionnaire
(Spanish adaptation for students of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS)
Academic engagement
Burnout-Engagement Questionnaire
(Spanish adaptation for students of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, MBI-GS)
NANANANANANA38Students10Experimental design with pretest, posttest and follow-up measurements. Spain
3190NoJournal ArticleEfectos de un programa de meditación en los valores de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios2009Justo CF,Luque MNElectronic Journal of Research in Education PsychologyIntroduction. This study analyzes the influence of a meditation program on the values of a university students’ sample.Method. 84 university students were assigned to an experimental group (N=45) and a control group (N=39). The experimental group participates in a meditation program. Values of participants were evaluated with a Spanish adaptation of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS).Results. Analysis show an increase of values of universalism, benevolence, transcendence and collectivism in the experimental group, compared with control group.Conclusion. So, we can conclude that the process of self-knowledge and inner exploration that characterise to meditation produces a change in the values of people practice it, increasing values of collectivism and social type.Editorial Universidad de Almeria1696-2095https://ojs.ual.es/ojs/index.php/EJREP/article/view/1330;http://dx.doi.org/10.25115/EJREP.V7I19.133010.25115/EJREP.V7I19.1330Values of universalism, benevolence, transcendence and collectivismSchwartz Value Survey (SVS) (Spanish version)NANANANANANANANANANA84Students10Quasi-experimental comparison of groups with pretest-post measurement Spain
3200NoJournal ArticleAutopercepción de cambios en los déficit atencionales intermedios de estudiantes universitarios de Barranquilla sometidos al Método de Autocontrol de la Atención (Mindfulness)* Auto-perception of the changes in the intermediary attention deficits of university students in Barranquilla submitted to the attention self-control Mindfulness method*2007Bech RB,Harb SL,Enrique J,Sañudo PSalud Uninorte. BarranquillaIntroducción: Las dificultades en el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes universitarios generalmente se ubican en sus habilidades cognitivas, en sus hábitos de estudio o en las relaciones con su pares o familiares, entre otros. Sin embargo, es necesario observar con más detalle cómo están focalizando su atención y cómo están manejando los distractores internos y externos. Por esto se requiere identificar de qué manera los estudiantes perciben los cambios en su atención al entrenarse en el Mindfulness, que consiste en saber autorregular la atención, lo cual genera cambios en la conducta y mejora el manejo del estrés. Objetivos: Se buscó identificar los cambios en los subprocesos atencionales y en los indica-dores de la atención de estudiantes universitarios entrenados en el Método de autocontrol de la atención Mindfulness. Materiales y método: Se utilizó un diseño preexperimental de un solo grupo con observación antes/después, en 21 universitarios (16 mujeres y 5 hombres), con una edad promedio de 20,4 años. Resultados: Se compararon los promedios mediante la t de student antes y después de entrenarse en el método Mindfulness, y se observaron cambios estadísticamente signifi-cativos tanto en la Escala Subjetiva como en las subescalas del WAIS, avalando el apoyo al entrenamiento en el método. 185 Salud Uninorte. Barranquilla (Col.) 2007; 23 (2): 184-192 Conclusiones. El método Mindfulness generó cambios favorables y significativos en la autopercepción de los subprocesos atencionales y en los indicadores de atención del WAIS. Palabras claves. Mindfulness, trastorno por déficit de atención, universitarios, Barranquilla. Abstract Introduction: Some of the difficulties that university students face in their academic performance are usually situated in their cognitive skills. The intermediate attention difficulties are one of the most frequent problems observed in university students with an average academic result. Such difficulties affect mainly their capacity to focus and maintain attention efficiently without being distracted. This leads to a reduction of their academic performance and consequently their general life well-being. Objectives: During this research, we attempt to identify the changes in the intermediate attentional processes and the WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) attention parameters using the self-control mindfulness method. Method: A pre-experimental design was used without a control group and pre and post observation in 21 university students (16 women and 5 men) whose average age was 20.4 years. The instruments used were the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (attention subtests), and an self-perception scale based on the four MirskýsMirskýs (1986) attention processes. Results: After comparing the students scores before and after receiving training in the mindfulness method, through the t-student the results suggested that the mindfulness method showed statistical significant changes ,between the before and after stages of the process. Changes were also evident in the WAIS quantitative scale as much as in the subjective scale, which supports the method training. Conclusions: The mindfulness method shows very meaningful changes in the autoperception of the students intermediate attentional processes and the WAIS attention parameters.NA0120-5552NANASelf-perception of attentional threadsSubjective scale Mirsky's four attentional threadsSelf-perception of attention indicatorsThree quantitative WAIS Attention subtests (Arithmetic, Scaling Digits, and Scaling DigitsWAISNANANANANANANANA21Students3Pre-experimental, single-group design with before/after observation Colombia